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Volume(3) / Issue(12)

Pulses as Sustainable Crops

Gurjot Kaur and Ashish Santosh Murai

Pulse crops are one element of plant-forward diets that have the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the need for natural resources in sustainable food systems. Pulses can simultaneously improve soil quality and crop diversification, which will boost crop production across the board. Pulses should be actively considered in all future solutions for establishing sustainable farming practices around the world due to their particular environmental benefits.

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Tunnel Farming of Vegetables

Dr. Ruby Sarmah et. al.

Vegetables are rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, salts and proteins. Increased health awareness, a high population growth rate, changing dietary patterns of an increasingly affluent middle class, and the availability of packaged vegetables have resulted in a year-round high demand for vegetables in the country. In the absence of storage infrastructure and a vegetable processing industry in the country, off-season vegetable farming is the only viable option for adding value to farmers' produce. Vegetables can be grown in the offseason using tunnel farming technology, which has been shown to help farmers extend the growing season, increase yield, and improve crop quality. Tunnels protect plants by shielding them from harsh weather, buffering low temperatures, and reducing certain diseases and pests. This article will discuss all tunnel farming-based advancements for off-season vegetable cultivation to maximise production and profit.

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Purple Revolution: An Underutilized Potential of Lavender Cultivation in Kashmir

Rahul Sharma et. al.

In Jammu and Kashmir economy is predominantly agriculture dependent and nearly 70% of the population is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural and allied activities. Government is now working on a vision on a daily basis to look beyond subsistence agriculture by leveraging special agro-climatic conditions of the Union Territory for securing high returns to the farmers from transformed and modern sustainable and inclusive agriculture interventions. In 2016, the Centre launched Aroma Mission to boost cultivation of plants like lavender which have aromatic medicinal properties. Under the mission, which was launched to move from imported aromatic oils to home grown varieties, first-time farmers were given free lavender saplings. It will encourage the development of aromatic crops for the production of essential oils, which are in high demand in the aroma sector. It is anticipated that Indian farmers and the aroma business will be able to become worldwide leaders in the production and export of various essential oils in the menthol mint pattern. Today, there is lavender farms in each of the 20 districts of J&K. Aroma Mission aims to bring an additional area of 30,000 hectares under cultivation of these crops by interventions of CSIR to further catalyse the cultivation of aromatic crops.

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SCADA-Automation Key Concept of Dairy Industrial Control System

Dr. Rushikesh A. Kantale et. al.

India is the second world largest population country after China. Food and its demand are increasing day by day. It also creates demand for large production with continuous manufacturing of food items. Indian food industries always demand highly efficient and easy handling systems which can use for automation and control processes going on in industries. Many industrial controlling systems available which can for the measurement and control process variables. SCADA is one of the industrial controlling systems. SCADA is used for controlling and data acquisition of industrial processes. It consists of different levels for controlling and data acquisition with help of different components like master computers, communication networks, human machine interface (HMI), field instruments, PLCs, sensors and actuators. They may connect with Ethernet or wireless network systems. Nowadays SCADA system is used widely as a controlling system in food industries. This encompasses both the coordination and control functions of any process. Easy to use and easy to manipulate of system makes this system user-friendly. It reduces labour costs, product wastage, time consumption and human efforts.

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Contamination of Coastal Environment by Anthropogenic Activities

S. Ajidhaslin and Dr. S. Aruna

Human activities impact marine ecosystems at a global scale and all levels of complexity of life. Now-a-days Industrial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, rapid industrialization, urbanization and land degradation are all worsening problem due to environmental contamination. Reportedly, many changes due to various anthropogenic activities such as changes in temperature regime and radioactive background, discharges of toxic effluents and inflow of nutrients, irretrievable water consumption and damage of aquatic organisms, landing of commercial species, destruction of shoreline and construction of drilling rig have been recorded. The concept of environmental contamination and its effect is extremely important for analyzing the changes in regional ecology due to anthropogenic activities.

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Novel Methodologies in Larval Nutrition

S. Dhinakaran and Dr. Cheryl Antony

Several novel methodologies, including tracer studies, genomics, proteomics, systems modelling, molecular genetics, among others, have contributed to significant progress in fish larval nutrition in recent years and some techniques are already incorporated into the present by slight modifications in the system and some might have future application for the larval nutrition. Under these, the tube-feeding and incorporation of 14C-amino acids and lipids into artemia, Diet selection of fish larvae by different natural stable isotope signatures or diets with different rare metal oxides by using Mechanistic modelling. Population genomics can be used in assessing genotype effects on nutritional requirements of fish larvae, by using progeny testing in fish reared in the same tanks, and also in identifying QTLs for larval stages.

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Gucchi Mushroom: The Story of Mountain Gold

Rahul Sharma et. al.

The Gucchi mushroom, Morchella esculenta, commonly known as the morel, is an expensive food item that grows wild and is collected manually. In India; it is the costliest vegetable in the world, costing between 20,000 INR and 30, 000 INR per kilogramme. Its nutritive and medicinal values are acknowledged. It is primarily found in India in the districts of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Kullu in Himachal Pradesh (HP). The farming community traditionally collects the mushroom from forested areas through a well-managed community approach. Elders of families and communities have taught them how to identify the mushroom, recognize distribution patterns, and collect it. The knowledge and ability to differentiate M. esculenta from other poisonous wild mushrooms has also been inherited from the elders and community members. It contains a wide range of pharmacological properties. Traditionally, the mushrooms are most commonly dried in the sun or the kitchen. Its medicinal uses are, however, restricted to only the hills and far-flung areas. This research summarizes the introduction, function, and scope of artificial production of the Gucchi Mushroom. In the future, the Gucchi mushroom will transform the Indian mushroom business, assisting farmers in their economic development.

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Brown Manuring-An Effective Technique for sustainable Agriculture

Botha Prashanthi and Billa Suresh Kumar

Indian agriculture is getting redrawn by the practices and increased attention paid to improving nutritive resource management. The combined use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers helps to preserve yield stability by reducing marginal secondary and micronutrient shortages, improving the productivity of applied nutrients and maintaining favorable physical conditions in the soil. Brown manuring can be seen as an alternate path to higher production and productivity of the crops and therefore enhancing the income of farmers. Brown manure is the perfect cost-effective way in nutrient management strategy for crops to improve production and to restore soil quality which in need of today?s agriculture.

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Zero-Budget Natural Farming

Latha G K and Devaraju

The neo-liberalization of the Indian economy has led to a deep agrarian crisis that makes small-scale farming an unviable vocation. Despite the increase in production, Indian farmers increasingly find themselves in a vicious cycle of departments because of the high production costs, the volatile crop prices, and the reduction of demand in the international market due to agro-chemicals residues. Under such conditions, natural farming practices promise to end a reliance on loans and reduce production costs, ending the debt cycle for desperate farmers and producing healthy and residue-free fruits.

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Parthenium hysterophorus-Obnoxious Weed of Today and Tomorrow

Sridhara M R et. al.

Parthenium hysterophorus (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) is regarded as one of the worst weeds because of its invasiveness, fast growing habit and economic and environmental impacts. The vigorous mode of reproduction and the ability to possess of an arsenal of secondary metabolites has given it the status of invasive alien species. This noxious weed possesses large aid persistent soil seed bank, high seed germination rate and ability to undergo dormancy under unfavorable periods. It is able to invade all disturbed land including farms, pastures and vacant lots and grows profusely along roadsides and railway tracks.

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Giloy (Tinospora Cordifolia), its Medicinal Properties and Chemical Constituents

Amit Kumar et. al.

Tinospora cordifolia is a perennial, herbal plant. The local name of Tinospora cordifolia is Gulancha (English), Giloya (Hindi). It is an important drug of Indian medicine system and used to cure many diseases. Giloy grown in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Subtropical regions of world. Stem, root and leaves are important to cure the disease. Anti-oxidant, anti-tumour activity, anti-neoplastic and anti-fertility properties enhance the medical value of this herb.

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Amaltas: An Emerging Boon for Ayurveda

Dr. Anshita Sinha and Dr. Anjul Verma

Ethno-veterinary and herbal remedies have been used for millennia, passing knowledge to the general population of the society, including the farming industry. Even if conventional medicine has rapidly declined as a result of recent advancements in the therapeutic field, plant-based treatments continue to play a significant role as potential sources of therapeutic aids in healthcare systems around the globe for both people and animals. Currently, traditional plant usage in veterinary medicine have been reported and documented in numerous regions, including Spain, Italy, Argentina, Brazil, and Kenya. The medicinal value of Cassia fistula Linn, also known as Golden Shower, Amaltas, or Indian Laburnum, has been recognised since ancient times. It is a common component of various traditional remedies, including ayurveda, siddha, unani, and Chinese herbal medicine for treatment of various diseases.

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Post-harvest Diseases of Mango and their Integrated Management

Erayya et. al.

Mango (Mangifera indica) is one of the major fruit crops of India. It is well known with name of King of Fruits. India contributes about 56 per cent of global production. Mango crop suffers due to many post-harvest diseases like anthracnose, stem-end rot, black mould rot, Botryosphaeria rot, phoma rot etc. Rotting of fruits due to several other fungal infestation is also very common. Post-harvest diseases can be managed by preharvest spray with fungicides, careful handling during harvesting, sorting and grading, hot water treatment (52+/-1 degree C, 10 minutes) and coating of fruits with essential oil/s help in management of post-harvest diseases of mango. There is a need to focus on use of nontoxic substances, biocontrol control and physical methods to manage post-harvest diseases. Farmers need to be trained on safe harvesting and integrated management of post-harvest diseases.

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Management and Emergence of Diseases in Livestock

Rajeshwar Khandare et. al.

A key part of the Indian economy is livestock. The socioeconomic development of rural households is significantly influenced by the livestock sector. For two thirds of rural communities, livestock is the main source of income. Additionally, it employs around 8.8% of India's population. The farmers in India practice mixed farming, which combines crops and livestock and maximizes resource efficiency by using one enterprise's result as another's input. Farmers benefit from their livestock in a variety of ways. Due to their low initial investment and ongoing costs, small animals like sheep, goats, piglets, and chickens are frequently kept for economic purposes by poor households with limited acreage. The demand for diverse livestock-based products has grown dramatically over the past ten years as a result of urbanization, rising per capita income, changing tastes and preferences, and growing nutritional awareness. In the coming decades, the livestock sector is set to become a growth engine for agriculture. It is also thought of as a possible industry for export revenue. This discussion analyses how the livestock industry has evolved in terms of population, productivity, commerce, and employment, as well as how it has contributed to the decline of rural poverty.

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