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Volume(4) / Issue(11)

Volume 4, Issue 11- Contents

November 2023

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Broccoli- A Green Superstar among Cole Crops

Vishal Singh

Broccoli, a cruciferous vegetable and a prominent member among cole crops, stands out as a nutritional powerhouse. Broccoli is celebrated as a green superstar due to its exceptional nutritional content. It is a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamin C, vitamin K, and various B vitamins, making it a valuable addition to a healthy diet. Additionally, it is brimming with essential minerals like calcium, iron, and potassium. Broccoli apart is its potent phytochemicals, such as sulforaphane, which possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, potentially reducing the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. Its fiber content aids in digestion and weight management. The cruciferous nature of broccoli also contributes to its reputation, as it is linked to potential cancer-fighting abilities. Moreover, its versatility in culinary applications makes it a popular choice in various cuisines.

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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.): A Nutritional and Medicinal Treasure from Leaves to Seeds

Atul Dhakad et al.

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a versatile plant that has long been recognized for its nutritional and medicinal value, encompassing both its leaves and seeds. Fenugreek is rich in essential nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, making it a valuable addition to the diet. Its leaves are not only a source of essential micronutrients but also exhibit potential health benefits such as aiding in digestion and managing blood sugar levels. The seeds of fenugreek, on the other hand, are renowned for their medicinal properties. They contain bioactive compounds like fenugreek saponins and alkaloids, which have been linked to various therapeutic effects. These include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, as well as potential roles in managing conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and even promoting lactation in nursing mothers. The dual significance of fenugreek is as a nutritious dietary component and as a valuable source of medicinal compounds, underscoring its potential in promoting overall health and well-being.

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Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb) Cultivation: A Tedious Jobs

Kumar Sonu et al.

Makhana, or Euryale ferox Salisb., is a water plant whose seeds are harvested for human consumption due to their high nutrient content. The seeds are black and spherical, and their hand seed coverings make them easy to see (shells). For its seeds, this plant is specifically grown in north Bihar, West Bengal, Manipur, and M.P. 90% of India's and the world's makhana are produced in Bihar, with 80% of that production taking place in the state's north-eastern area. While growing of makhana farmers face a lots of constraint like ownership problem, labor intensive problems, lack of credit facility, scientific cultivation, lack of processing facilities, lack of scientific knowledge, disease, and pest problems. The economic situation of makhana growers may be improved if the proper actions are taken to address the challenges they face. With rising demand in India and worldwide, the harnessing of this rich resource to the optimum is vitally required in strengthening the economy of country.

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Comprehensive Precautions for Mango Cultivation: From Flowering to Harvest and Beyond

T. Kavya Sri et al.

The mango, known as the "King of Fruits," is a highly valued tropical fruit with extensive global cultivation, notably in India. This article provides insights into precautions that should be taken at different stages of mango cultivation, from flowering to harvesting and postharvest handling. During the flowering stage, attention to watering, fertilization, and pest management is crucial to ensure a bountiful yield. Precautions before harvesting involve maintaining hygienic conditions, preventing ground and soil contact, and protecting the fruit from direct sunlight. Harvesting itself should be carried out at the right stage of maturity and with proper tools while avoiding wet conditions and handling the fruit gently. After harvesting, clean storage facilities, trimming, Delatexing, and sorting are essential to maintain the quality of the mangoes. These precautions collectively contribute to the successful cultivation and preservation of this beloved fruit.

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Long Non-Coding RNA (LncRNA): An Emerging Regulatory Component in Plants

Sainath et al.

The Central Dogma of molecular biology primarily describes the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Despite the fact that a small fraction of transcribed RNA results in proteins, the majority constitutes noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) previously considered as "transcriptional noise." Among these, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) plays a pivotal role in plant biology. LncRNAs, longer than 200 nucleotides, are categorized into various types based on their relationships with protein-coding genes, showing potential in stress response modulation, immune system regulation, symbiotic interactions, and control of developmental processes like flowering. Notably, specific lncRNAs have been linked to fruit ripening regulation, salt tolerance enhancement, and disease resistance in plants, emphasizing their functional significance in these processes.

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Enhancing Soil Health and Productivity through Conservation Agriculture

Krashankant Sharma et al.

Conservation agriculture is an innovative approach to enhance soil health and productivity while promoting sustainable farming practices. Conservation agriculture involves minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover, and crop rotation, which collectively reduce soil erosion, improve water retention, and enhance nutrient cycling. By preserving the soil's structure and organic matter, it promotes long-term fertility and resilience against environmental stressors. This approach not only boosts crop yields but also mitigates the negative impacts of traditional farming methods, such as soil degradation and carbon emissions. Conservation agriculture contributes to sustainable food production, conserves natural resources, and supports farmers' livelihoods. It is an essential strategy for ensuring food security and preserving the environment, making it an invaluable tool in addressing the challenges of modern agriculture and fostering a more sustainable and resilient food system.

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Women Friendly Agriculture: A Way of Cultivating Equality with the Growth of the Agricultural Sector

Bitanshu Biswas et al.

Women-friendly agriculture encompasses the agricultural practices and policies that consider women's needs and empowerment in the agricultural sector. Besides crop management, women also engage in dairy and livestock management, which can be a significant source of income. Nevertheless, they encounter various challenges, such as lower wages, lack of land ownership, gender-based discrimination, and so forth. To alleviate the drudgery and enhance the efficiency of women's work, various lightweight women-friendly tools have been devised. This review article succinctly covers these aspects to tackle gender-based discrimination and foster women's participation in agriculture and allied activities.

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Sensors: Real-Time Monitoring Technology of Stored Grain Pests

Bharati Jambunatha Patil et al.

Stored grain pests are indirectly responsible for food scarcity due to deterioration and quantitative loss caused by them to the stored grains. Before taking up any management strategy, detection of the level of infestation is crucial for effective management and avoiding the extra cost of plant protection activities. Thus insect monitoring is the basic step in any crop protection activities. The majority of the stored grain pests are concealed feeders and the damage symptoms are obscure. Traditional monitoring systems like visual inspection, light and pheromone traps are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Advances in science and technology led to the development of sensors to detect hidden infestation in grains and forewarn the godown keepers and farmers to take timely measures to avoid heavy losses. Sensors have a wide range of applications in stored grain pest management to bring down food grain loss due to qualitative and quantitative deterioration.

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IFFCO Nano Urea: Revolutionizing Agriculture towards Sustainability

Shalini Roy et al.

Nano urea is a nanoscale form of the conventional nitrogen fertilizer urea. Its reduced particle size increases surface area, promoting controlled release and improved nutrient uptake efficiency in plants. The gradual nutrient supply matches crop demands and mitigates environmental impacts by reducing nitrogen losses. Nano urea's potential benefits lie in enhanced agricultural productivity and sustainability, with reduced runoff and eutrophication risks. However, as a developing technology, its commercial availability and broader adoption require further investigation and understanding of potential long-term effects. Continued research is essential to ensure safe and effective utilization of nano urea in modern agriculture.

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Role of Transcription Activity of WRKY Transcription Factor in Cotton Fiber Initiation and Elongation

Sainath K et al.

Cotton known as "King of fibre" and "White gold" is a globally vital crop used for soft clothing. Its cultivation spans over 50 countries with major producers including the USA, India, China, the Middle East and Australia. Cotton deriving from species like G. arboreum, G. herbaceum, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense dominates textile production due to its ecofriendliness. Cotton fibre development involves complex biological processes influenced by genetic factors and transcription factors (TFs) crucial for regulating elongation. Cotton flowering leads to boll formation containing seeds encased in fibres. Ethylene hormone significantly impacts fibre elongation. Specific TFs notably WRKY factors, play essential roles in cotton fibre development regulating genes associated with fibre growth and quality. Studies identified WRKY genes' significance in initiation, elongation and maturation phases, showing their regulatory functions. GhWRKY16, a fibre-specific TF positively influences fibre initiation and elongation binding to gene promoters and enhancing fibre development in cotton.

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Plankton based Shrimp Farming: A Step towards Sustainable Aquaculture

Ishita J. Bambhaniya et al.

With the global demand for aquaculture products on the rise, the imperative for sustainable practices has become increasingly apparent. This article explores three cutting-edge techniques - Biofloc Technology (BFT), Synbiotics, and Aquamimicry - aimed at enhancing the sustainability of shrimp farming. These innovative strategies center on the utilization of phytoplankton and zooplankton as primary feed sources, addressing nutrient waste issues and replicating natural aquatic conditions. By introducing controlled carbon sources, they efficiently manage waste in shrimp ponds, promoting the growth of algae, zooplankton, and beneficial bacteria. This, in turn, reduces the need for intensive aeration and feed, making these practices not only eco-friendly but also economically viable. In optimizing waste management, water quality, and feed utilization, these approaches offer promising solutions to improve the sustainability of the shrimp farming industry while mitigating environmental impacts.

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Phytobiotics as Immunostimulant for Disease Treatment in Aquaculture

Gamit Roshni and P.V. Parmar

In aquaculture, the use of immunostimulants, particularly herbal compounds, has emerged as a promising approach. Phytobiotics or herbal extracts to enhance growth and health. Intensified aquaculture induces stress in fish, leading to weakened immunity, reduced growth, and diseases. Due to the ban on many antibiotics in aquaculture, stimulating the non-specific immune system is a smart strategy. Studies have revealed that plant-derived compounds, rich in bioactive secondary metabolites, play a significant role in stimulating fish immunity. Approaches utilizing immunostimulants like glucan, chitin, lactoferrin, levamisole, and medicinal plant extracts have gained traction due to their ability to modulate immune responses, improving protection against infectious diseases. These compounds enhance phagocytic cells' activities, stimulate natural killer cells, and boost lysozyme activity and antibody responses in fish and shellfish, offering enhanced disease resistance. This holistic approach not only ensures healthier aquatic organisms but also addresses concerns related to environmental impact, making it a valuable strategy in modern aquaculture practices.

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Smart Water Management on Quality Crop Production

Prikxit et al.

Climate change influences agriculture and agriculture-based livelihoods both directly and indirectly. Agriculture is the biggest consumer of freshwater in the world, amounting to up to 70% of the total use, which makes the case for smart water management in order to guarantee water and food security to the world?s population. In recent decades, research on precision irrigation driven by climate change has developed a multitude of strategies, methods and technologies to reduce water consumption in irrigation projects and to adapt to the increasing occurrence of water scarcity, agricultural droughts and competition between agricultural and industrial sectors for the use of water. In this context, the adoption of water-saving and application practices implies a multidisciplinary approach to accurately quantify the water needs of crops under different water availability and management practices. The intelligent irrigation technique is a valuable tool for monitoring and quantifying irrigation water added for plants as well as for irrigation scheduling. Thus, this review article presented a review of technologies and new trends in the context of precision irrigation, future perspectives and critically analyze notions and means to maintain high levels of land and water productivity, which minimize irrational water consumption at the field level.

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Prophylactic Strategies in Mitigating Disease Risks in Indian Carp Farming

Siddharth Sankar Das et al.

Carp farming is the dominant sector of inland aquaculture in India, accounting for over 85% of the total freshwater aquaculture production. Nevertheless, this industry has faced challenges by the disease outbreaks leading to partial crop losses. The traditional method of managing infectious diseases in carp farming involves the use of antibiotics, parasiticides, and other pharmaceuticals, which are known to have long-term harmful effects on both the host and the environment. The old proverb "prevention is better than treatment" holds true, and it is wise to prioritize disease prevention over treatment in carp farming. Implementing improved husbandry practices, imposing movement restrictions, use of immunostimulants and probiotics, administering vaccines, and ensuring water disinfection are all effective strategies for preventing and managing infectious diseases in fish farming. This article aims to highlight some of these prophylactic approaches to reduce disease risks in carp farming.

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Liquid Trees: A Novel Approach for Air Pollution Mitigation

Anannya Dhar et al.

Air pollution is regarded as a menace that deteriorates the quality of life for urban residents. Deforestation resulting from urbanization has reduced the absorption of greenhouse gases and pollutants by trees. Consequently, the concept of the "Liquid Tree" has emerged in recent scientific research. The "Liquid Tree" is a photo-bioreactor designed in Serbia, housing green microalgae capable of capturing and sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. It conducts photosynthesis to release pure oxygen, thereby enhancing air quality. In addition to air purification, it treats wastewater and promotes greenery in densely populated urban areas. This popular article summarizes the operational principles and potential applications of the Liquid Tree.

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Winter Pond Management

Pinak Bamaniya et al.

Winter pond management is essential for the health of aquatic ecosystems. During this season, temperature fluctuations and reduced sunlight can impact water quality and fish behavior. To ensure success, it's important to adjust feeding practices, monitor dissolved oxygen levels, and maintain adequate water depth. Proper organic matter removal, algal bloom control, and pH regulation are essential for water quality maintenance. Prophylactic measures like antibiotic application and salt usage can help prevent disease outbreaks, while expert consultation is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment in case of diseases. Additionally, avoiding fish stocking during winter and creating space for new fingerlings in spring promotes efficient and sustainable aquaculture. Winter pond management requires a comprehensive approach, emphasizing regular monitoring, responsible practices, and expert guidance for the well-being of fish and overall pond health.

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Seafood Processing Plant Waste and its Management Strategies

Sachin Chavan et al.

Seafood processing plants play an important role in global food production, which produce significant waste due to modern processing techniques. Ineffective waste management puts the environment and human health at risk and destroys valuable resources. This study explores the significance of waste generated in seafood processing plants and its effects on the environment. It highlights the requirement for effective waste management techniques to minimize ecological impact. Seafood processing generates organic waste, including shells, scales, and discarded portions. It might be difficult to dispose of such leftovers and they contribute to pollution. The potential for effective waste management techniques to turn waste into resources is highlighted. The study emphasizes the significance of sustainable practices to decrease waste, protect the environment, and advance circular economy concepts within the seafood industry.

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Innovative Breeding Strategies in Maize

Pratikshya Mishra and Smruti Ranjan Padhan

Maize, a staple crop of global significance, has witnessed remarkable advancements in breeding strategies that address the challenges of a growing world population, climate change, and evolving consumer preferences. Traditional maize breeding methods, while effective, have their limitations in terms of precision and efficiency. In response to these challenges, breeders have embraced cutting-edge technologies, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS), to accelerate the development of superior maize varieties. Innovative breeding strategies in maize represent a paradigm shift in agricultural science. These strategies leverage cutting-edge technologies, data analytics, and a deeper understanding of maize genetics to accelerate the development of maize varieties that are resilient, nutritious, and adapted to a changing world. As the demand for maize continues to grow, these innovations are crucial in ensuring global food security and agricultural sustainability.

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Tomato Processing Industries: Global and Indian Perspectives

Jagesh Kumar Tiwari et al.

Tomato processing in India is less than 1% compared to the developed countries like Italy (64.02%), Spain (39.41%) and USA (10.34%). Of total over 180 million tones of annual production of tomato, nearly 40 million tones are processed. With a substantial production of tomatoes mainly in winter season, India has secured its place as a key player in the global tomato processing market. This will be helpful for off-season utilization of tomato based products in Indian market. The sector?s emphasis on partnerships with farmers and sustainable practices not only ensures a steady supply of raw materials but also fosters responsible agricultural methods. Thus, there is a huge potential of processing industries for diverse utilization of tomatoes in India.

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Tomato-nomics: Sky-rocketing Price and Possible Solutions for Summer Tomatoes

Jagesh Kumar Tiwari et al.

Tomato is an essential ingredient of vegetable cuisine. The availability of tomato in winter season is sufficient and even over production causes glut situation, however its scarcity during summer and rainy seasons is also observed. Surprisingly, in the year 2023 faced problems of sudden upsurge in tomatoes prices due to imbalance in demand and supply. Owing to several reasons it caused sudden upsurge in tomato prices such as extreme weather conditions (heat and rainy season), tomato viral diseases, insufficient financial returns and farmers' shift from tomato cultivation. The Government of India has taken initiative to address these issues through 'Tomato Grand Challenge', dissemination of information system for crop planning and market intelligence, post-harvest management and storage technologies. In this article, we suggest a few solutions to address the issues through buffer stocking, cold storage, processing industries, transportation, minimum support price, market linkage between farmers and consumers, and reform in mandis system.

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Urea Gold: Unveiling the Benefits of Sulphur-coated Urea Fertilizer

Arnab Khanra et al.

Nitrogen is considered a very crucial element for plant growth. But, due to the various nitrogen losses, the nitrogen use efficiency is very low and it often leads to various environmental pollutions. Sulphur is another important secondary macronutrient for plants. Sulphur deficiency in Indian soil is increasing every passing year. Urea gold is a slow-release sulphur-coated urea fertilizer which is recently launched to solve the problems associated with sulphur deficiencies in Indian soil. It contains 37% nitrogen and 17% sulphur. The nutrient-coated layer hydrolyses slowly which releases the nutrients slowly and thus enhances the nutrient uptake and reduce various nutrient loss from the soil. It saves labour cost and promotes environmental sustainability.

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Village Relocation from Tiger Reserves: Needs and Challenges

Syed Ali et al.

The relocation of villages from tiger reserves is indeed a significant initiative by Government of India which aimed at conserving wildlife and their natural habitats, while also improving the living conditions of forest-dwelling communities. This process is generally voluntary and mutually beneficial in nature. Relocating villages from tiger reserves is a highly complex and sensitive undertaking that involves various needs, challenges, and considerations. The article offers insightful information on needs and challenges of effective relocation of villages from tiger reserves. Successful relocation initiatives often require a long-term commitment, adaptive management, and a willingness to address challenges as they arise. Balancing the needs of both wildlife and people is a delicate task that requires careful planning and continuous evaluation to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes.

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Ecology of Virus in Soil

Arvind Kumar Shukla et al.

The study of viral ecology within soil environments is a topic of scientific interest. Soil microbiologists have constantly engaged in the investigation of viruses, focusing on agronomic and epidemiological considerations. The diversity of viruses in the soil environment surpasses that found in aquatic environments. Hence, it is evident that viruses present in soil possess significant potential to contribute to various ecological processes. Specifically, they exhibit comparable quantitative impacts, while also offering distinct qualitative contributions.In this article, past findings on viruses in soils is summarized after the introduction of the ecological traits of viruses, which are the effects of viruses on beneficial bacteria and soil-borne plant pathogens, adsorption of viruses to soils, and soil factors affecting viral inactivation and survival in soils. In aquatic ecosystems, it has been estimated that a considerable portion, ranging from five to 25%, of the carbon fixed by primary producers enters the microbial loop through virus-induced lysis occurring at different trophic levels.The potentiality and characteristics of viruses in soils are discussed in the final section for future work on virus ecology in soils from the viewpoints of biogeochemistry and genomic diversity. Synecological approaches to viruses in soils may open up a new era in the study of soil virus ecology.

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Silvicultural Practices to Enhance Wildlife Habitats: A Holistic Approach

Clara Manasa P. A. et al.

Covering one-third of Earth's land surface, forests provide habitat to a diverse range of plant and animal species. This article explores the dynamics of sustainable forestry, which goes beyond timber extraction to foster a harmonious relationship between human needs and forest preservation. Silviculture, the science of forest management, emerges as a pivotal tool for enhancing wildlife habitats while ensuring sustainable resource utilization. It involves regulating stand and forest structures, creating essential habitat elements, and promoting vertical diversity. This article probes into specific practices, such as managing wildlife nutrition and providing shelter through tree species composition, old-growth habitat preservation, and the arrangement of forest stands, edges, corridors, and the broader landscape context. Incorporating wildlife habitat management into silviculture fosters a synergistic approach, where sustainable timber production coexists with ecological conservation. This balance ensures the preservation and enrichment of forest ecosystems, presenting a model of sustainable coexistence between human communities and the natural world.

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Effect of Soil Salinity on Soybean Seed Growth and Development

Chaithanya G and Ananda K R

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important oilseed crop that has gained primary importance in diet and industries due to its wide uses. India stands fourth in world soybean production due to its cultivation under low and marginal soils. Major soybean growing areas are affected by soil salinity due to both climatic and anthropogenic factors and compared to other countries, the average yield of soybean is less. Hence a brief understanding is necessary to know how soil salinity affects seed germination and seedling growth and its mitigation strategies.

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Steps Involved in Establishing Quality Control Systems for Processing of Fruits and Vegetables

Somashekhar Gaddanakeri and Faiziya

Fruit and vegetable consumption has increased in recent decades for a number of reasons such as: healthier diet, popularity of veganism, lack of time to cook etc. So top quality produce is becoming increasingly popular. The higher the quality of the produce, the higher the profit and price. Therefore, quality control standards are necessary.

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Morchella esculenta: A Magical Medicinal Mushroom of the Himalayas

Neena Kumari et al.

Morchella esculenta is an important wild mushroom species found in the Indian Himalayan region. It is commonly known as yellow morel. Species has been in use since long back as favorite food item. It is being considered as one of the high proteins containing source supplemented with many medicinal properties. Due to the presence of bioactive compounds like phenols, polysaccharides, it is having anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory and anti-cancerous properties. Moreover, the presence of more protein content or comparable to that in animals makes this species of paramount importance.

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Jasmonic Acid Seed Priming: A Novel Approach for Alleviating Salinity Stress

Chaithanya G and Deepak Rao

Salinity stress poses a significant challenge to crop productivity worldwide. Developing effective strategies to enhance salinity tolerance in plants is crucial for sustainable agriculture. Jasmonic acid (JA), a key plant hormone, has emerged as a promising tool for mitigating the adverse effects of salinity stress. Jasmonic acid seed priming, a novel approach, involves pre-soaking seeds in a JA solution to induce physiological and molecular changes that enhance germination, seedling growth, and stress tolerance. This article provides an overview of the effects of JA seed priming on plants under salinity stress. Jasmonic acid seed priming promotes osmotic stress tolerance by enhancing the accumulation of Osmo protectants and activating antioxidant defense systems. It modulates hormonal signalling pathways, promoting the breakdown of dormancy and stimulating germination. Additionally, JA seed priming induces gene expression changes, leading to the upregulation of stress-responsive genes and the activation of metabolic pathways involved in nutrient mobilization. Overall, JA seed priming represents a promising and sustainable approach for alleviating salinity stress in plants. Understanding the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of JA seed priming will facilitate its practical implementation for crop improvement programs aimed at enhancing salinity tolerance and ensuring food security in saline environments.

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Geospatial Technologies for Climate Resilience in Agriculture

Sagun Mahajan et al.

Climate change influences agriculture and agriculture-based livelihoods both directly and indirectly. As climate change continues to pose significant challenges to agricultural systems worldwide, the adoption of geospatial technologies has emerged as a critical strategy to enhance climate resilience in agriculture. Geospatial technologies including Remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS), offer powerful tools for data collection, analysis, and decision-making. By enabling the monitoring and assessment of climate related variables such as temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and crop growth, these technologies empower farmers, researchers and policymakers to make informed decisions and adapt to changing climate conditions. Applications of geospatial technologies, such as precision agriculture, yield monitoring, early warning systems, soil mapping and natural resource management enhance the climate resilience of agriculture by optimizing resource use, increasing productivity, and minimizing environmental impacts. Geospatial technologies represent a valuable and evolving toolset for addressing climate resilience in agriculture and helping to secure food production in a changing world.

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Rice Mechanisms in Response to Submergence and Waterlogging Stress

Okram Ricky Devi et al.

Rice unlike other cereals can survive well in anaerobic condition as it is highly tolerant to excess water stress either due to submergence (where a part or the whole plant is under water) or waterlogging (soil condition in which excess water limits diffusion of gas) which leads to reduction of aerobic respiration. Rice tolerates submergence by internal aeration and growth controls. A quiescence strategy based on Submergence-1A (SUB1A) or escape strategy based on SNORKEL1 (SK1) and SNORKEL2 (SK2) are used for the growth controls. On the other hand, rice handles waterlogging stress by forming lysigenous aerenchyma and a barrier to radial oxygen (O2) loss (ROL) in roots in order to supply O2 to root tips.

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Types of Cowpeas and Importance of Red Cowpea

Kashish Maroti Lonare and Vrushali Dinkar Patil

This article discusses the importance of red cowpea, a highly nutritious legume. Cowpea is a versatile crop rich in protein and nutrients, commonly cultivated in India. Red cowpea, with its distinct nutty flavor and high iron content, is particularly valued for its nutritional benefits. It is a staple in Indian and African diets, offering various minerals and dietary fiber. Cowpeas also have health benefits, including cholesterol management and cardiovascular support. They contain antioxidants, soluble fiber, and phytoestrogens, making them a valuable addition to diets for maintaining overall health and preventing certain diseases.

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Lameness in Dairy Animals: Risk Factors, Effects, and Management

Divyanshu Singh Tomar et al.

Livestock is an important source of income for landless and marginal farmers and plays an important role in the national economy. As a reliable "bank on hooves" during difficult times, the livestock sector provides opportunities for employment as well as offers high-quality food for human beings. India possesses the largest livestock population in the world. Globally, livestock production is growing rapidly as a result of increasing demand for animal products. This holds also true for the dairy industry, the centre of which is dairy cows. Their well-being, health and welfare are important for successful production and economic success. Foot and leg disorders tend to increase along with increased production and more confined management systems. Lameness is one of the most serious welfare problems for the dairy cow, and yet it is one of the least well-managed health problems of dairy cattle.

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From Mines to Fields: Assessing the Agricultural Fallout of Coal Mining in India

K. Karuna Sri et al.

In the interplay between India's agricultural legacy and the voracious energy needs driving coal mining, a critical juncture has been reached. This study, 'From Mines to Fields: Assessing the Agricultural Fallout of Coal Mining in India,' helps to give insights of the profound impacts of coal mining on agriculture. It reveals that beyond the visible environmental alterations lie intricate challenges?disrupted water resources, soil degradation and shifting agricultural techniques that imperil the sustenance of farmers. In order to study the effect of mining on agriculture, Singareni coal mining region of Bhupalapally district was selected purposively and 40 farmers from mining region and 40 farmers from controlled region was taken with the prestructured interview schedule. This research illuminates not only the immediate consequences of coal mining but also underscores the urgent need for holistic, sustainable approaches to reconcile industrial aspirations with the preservation of India's agrarian heritage.

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Nano Fertilizers: Applications and Future Prospects

Priyanka et al.

The global population is growing at an alarming rate, which has increased the demand for food continuously. The widespread use of fertilizers is a result of the increased global demand for food. The commonly used chemical fertilizers may increase plant growth and output, but they have deleterious effects on the soil, the environment, and even human health. Therefore, there is a need for adopting environment friendly fertilizers having high nutrient value. Nanotechnology is rising as a promising alternative in the form of nano fertilizers. Nanofertilizers (NFs) are materials in the size range of 1?100 nm that support the nutrition of the plants. Nano fertilizer comprises nanoformulations of nutrients deliverable to plants, enabling sustained and homogeneous absorption. It is a novel way to optimize the nutrient supply, either alone or in combination. Researches have shown that nano fertilizers increase nutrient usage, reduce soil toxicity, mitigate possible adverse effects of excessive use of chemical fertilizers. Moreover, the use of nano fertilizers drastically reduces waste, thereby saving money and protecting the environment. Furthermore, nano fertilizers, along with beneficial microbes, i.e., nano-biofertilizers, have set a paramount application toward sustainable agriculture. Nano fertilizers are the product of promising new technology that can help to meet the increasing demand for food and improve agricultural sustainability.

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Ethical Dilemmas in Livestock Farming: Balancing Animal Rights and Productivity

Ashish et al.

In this well-liked article, we explore the difficult moral choices faced by livestock farmers as they attempt to strike a careful balance between upholding animal welfare and rights while preserving productivity and profitability. We examine the issues and potential remedies that occur in contemporary animal farming methods, illuminating the expanding significance of ethical considerations in this sector. Readers get a deeper knowledge of how their decisions affect animals, the environment, and society as a whole via expert insights. The article's ultimate goal is to promote a more knowledgeable and ethical approach to raising livestock for a future that is both humane and sustainable.

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Outline of Various Schemes for Farmers Empowerment in Odisha

Bijaylaxmi Behera et al.

Agriculture is backbone of the Indian economy, so it is essential to support farmers who are the major concern in agriculture. Government schemes in agriculture have vital role in supporting and promoting the agricultural growth. These schemes are designed to address the challenges faced by farmers, improve agricultural productivity, ensure food security, and enhance the livelihoods of rural communities. They provide financial assistance, technical support, and access to resources, helping farmers adopt modern practices, mitigate risks, and achieve sustainable agricultural growth. Thus, the article informs about some of the most beneficial and well-liked government programmes for Odisha farmers.

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Bee Vectoring Technology: A Pillar of Sustainable Plant Protection

Subhadip Kar and Debashis Roy

Bee doesn't mean only the production of honey and other by products, it has a significant role in agriculture as a pollinator. Better pollination leads better crop production. But now a days chemical pesticides are widely used for plant protection purpose. This practice is dangerous for our environment and also not sustainable in nature. There is a new approach, Bee Vectoring Technology (BVT) which begins with selecting specific beneficial microorganisms such as, certain strains of naturally occurring fungi or bacteria (Biopesticide), that can promote plant growth, provide protection against pathogens, improve overall crop health and also environmentally friendly in nature.

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Nuclear Agriculture: Growing a Sustainable Future for Food

D.V.S. Akshay et al.

The global challenge of feeding an ever-expanding population while preserving the environment has ignited interest in innovative solutions. Nuclear agriculture, a promising field at the nexus of nuclear science and farming, has emerged as a beacon of hope. This article explores the potential and implications of nuclear agriculture in addressing food security and sustainability. It delves into radiation breeding, isotope techniques, and environmentally friendly pest management, showcasing how nuclear science can transform crop cultivation. Furthermore, it highlights the role of nuclear agriculture in climate resilience and soil water management. In a world teetering on the brink of a food crisis, this technology offers a sustainable path toward achieving higher yields, enhanced food safety, and climate-resilient crops. While exciting, the adoption of nuclear agriculture must be guided by rigorous regulatory frameworks and public engagement to ensure its responsible and ethical use.

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Role of Endophytic Fungi in Plant Disease Management

Mummineni Sunitha et al.

The majority of plant diseases are caused by microorganisms of which fungi are the most common followed by bacteria and viruses. Endophytic fungi reside in the tissues beneath the epidermal cell layers and live within a plant for at least part of its life without causing apparent diseases. An alternative for chemical control is the application of biocontrol agents, which includes the application of fungal endophytes in the biocontrol of a wide array of plant pathogens. Endophytes' ability to successfully colonize a host plant depends on several variables, including the plant's tissue type, genotype, microbial taxon and strain type, and biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. Crops with endophyte colonization have a higher propensity to withstand diverse stresses than those without this relationship. Through antibiosis or induced systemic resistance, endophytes are crucial for maintaining the health of plants since they can shield or prepare the plant for biotic challenges while also promoting growth and productivity. The primary filamentous fungi investigated and employed as biological control agents against nematodes as resistance inducers are endophytic fungi. Overall, endophytes are viewed as extremely significant plant partners with the ability to increase agricultural output by reducing yield loss through the provision of better stress tolerance to the host in a sustainable manner.

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African Swine Fever: A Threat to North-East India

Thokchom Shitarjit Singh et al.

African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most dreaded disease of pigs, can cause mortality of up to 100%. It is included among the highly contagious disease of swine that include among the List A diseases by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Following disease outbreaks with high mortality in pigs in states of north-east India, namely Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in early 2020 in which 3710 pigs died of ASF. In Mizoram, 12,568 pigs were reported to have been killed in the year 2021, 11,594 pigs were killed during the second wave of the disease in the year 2022. In 2023, Mizoram experienced the third wave of ASF, resulting in dead of 980 pigs and culling of 590 pigs. There is also report of ASF in Manipur during October 2023. This is due to porous border of NE states of India. There is no vaccine available commercially.

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Biochar Production, Properties and Applications: An Overview

H. B. Roghan and P. Kumar

Biochar is a type of charcoal that is left over from the pyrolysis of biomass. It is a light, black residue composed of ashes and carbon. "The solid material obtained from the thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment" is the definition of biochar given by the International Biochar Initiative. Rich in pyrogenic carbon, biochar is a stable solid that can persist in soil for millennia.The idea of pyrogenic carbon capture and storage (PyCCS), or carbon sequestration using biochar, originates from the refractory stability of biochar. Given its ability to absorb carbon with little effort, it might be a way to slow down the effects of climate change. Acidic soils may become more fertile thanks to biochar, which can also boost agricultural output.

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The Growing Importance of Drone Technology in Indian Agriculture

Pranabesh Barman et al.

Indian agriculture, the traditional backbone of the nation's economy, is undergoing a technological revolution through the integration of drone technology. Drones equipped with advanced sensors and cameras are reshaping the agricultural landscape by enabling precise crop monitoring, land surveying, livestock management, pest control, and irrigation optimization. The benefits are substantial, including enhanced productivity, cost reduction, environmental sustainability, and early disease detection. However, challenges like regulatory hurdles, high initial costs, lack of awareness, data security concerns, and technological infrastructure gaps need addressing. With proper support and policies, drone technology promises to secure a prosperous and sustainable future for Indian agriculture, ensuring food security and economic growth.

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Developing Yield Table for Casuarina Grown in Farm Settings

H. B. Roghan and P. Rajendran

The study was carried out at Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu. We have used different age gradations of plantations for yield table preparation viz., zero to one, one to two upto four to five years. Data Collection on diameter at various heights and total height of the tree were collected by using Tree telescope. By using this field data, we could find the present productivity and profitability of the field (from yield table).

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RNAi Strategy for Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Revolutionary Approach

G.S. Uma et al.

This article explores the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) in the management of forest insect pests. RNAi, a natural cellular process regulating gene expression, offers a precise and environmentally-friendly means of pest control. By designing specific RNA molecules, we can target essential genes in insect pests, disrupting vital biological processes and leading to their demise. This approach presents numerous advantages over traditional pest management strategies. While challenges such as delivery methods and regulatory approval persist, RNAi holds immense promise in revolutionizing forest pest management, offering a sustainable and effective solution for preserving vital ecosystems.

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Mycomicrobiology: Unveiling the Intricate Dance of Fungi and Microbes

Baljeet Singh Saharan

Mycomicrobiology, an emerging scientific discipline, delves into the intricate relationships between fungi and microbes, revealing their multifaceted roles in diverse ecological niches. These dynamic interactions have profound implications, spanning from environmental preservation to pioneering biotechnologies. Within mycomicrobiology, researchers uncover a range of connections, from mutualistic to antagonistic, impacting ecosystems, agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. This field offers promise for pioneering discoveries, coupled with ethical considerations in manipulating these associations to derive sustainable solutions. This article serves as a concise introduction to the study of fungal-microbial interactions, emphasizing their significance in guiding future scientific and industrial research. As technology progresses, mycomicrobiology holds the potential to yield innovative applications, thereby deepening our understanding of the intricate tapestry of life on Earth.

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Smart Plant Protection: A Sustainable Way Forward

Surabhika Panda and S. K. Panda

Facing the need of modern agriculture to accurately grasp the information of farmland diseases and pests, this paper proposes an intelligent plant protection system. The system focuses on retrieving data and using it in developing farming systems in a smart way that will yield better results. Such real time data can be readily accessed by the farmers through smart phones or tablets which will help them take wise decisions at the right time. It helps in managing farm plant protection activities using technologies like IoT, robotics, drones and AI for efficient pest management aiming to increase the quantity and quality of products while optimizing the human labour required for production. The pest damage symptom images are transmitted to the server through Wi-Fi transmission, which in combination with the expert knowledge model, a solution is generated and the user can identify the current diseases and pests and obtain solutions at any time. The system can remotely and automatically monitor and warn of mainstream diseases and pests of agricultural crops and provide support for fine plant protection management.

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Management of Sheep and Goats for Sustainable High Yield Production

Dr. Anil Kumar and Dr. Aditya Kaswan

The most relevant aspects of nutritional, reproductive and health management are the three pillars of flock efficiency, production and sustainability regarding the intensification of production in sheep and goats. In small ruminants, reproductive management is dependent on seasonality, which in turn depends on breed and latitude. Nutrition represents the major cost for flocks and greatly affects their health, the quality of their products and their environmental impact. High-yielding sheep and goats have very high requirements and dietary intake, requiring nutrient-dense diets and sophisticated nutritional management that should always consider the strong interrelationships among nutrition, immunity, health, reproduction, housing and farm management. The reproductive pattern is to a great extent assisted by out-of-season breeding, facilitating genetic improvement schemes, and more recently by advanced reproductive technologies. In highly producing systems, nutrition, genetic and hazard factors assume a complex interrelationship. Genomic and management improvement research and technological innovation are the keys to sustain sheep and goat production in the future.

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Recent Advances on Camel Milk vs Cow Milk

Dr. Anil Kumar and Dr. Aditya Kaswan

Compared to other livestock raised in similar conditions, camels, who are significant dairy animals, yield more milk in dry and desert areas. Compared to other animals like cattle, they not only live longer but also yield more milk. Compared to milk from other species, camel milk offers certain advantages and special qualities. An array of human ailments, including antidiabetic, anti-autistic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, anticholesterolemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoallergenic, hepatoprotective, and immune-boosting effects, are allegedly treated by camel milk, which also boasts superior nutritional quality. The purported medicinal qualities of camel milk are ascribed to the presence of many bioactive chemicals in it, along with the production of bioactive peptides from intact proteins during the process of digestion and/or fermentation. The content of individual proteins, their colloidal structures, and the structural and functional characteristics of the milk's constituents are all significantly different between camel and cow's milk. The process of turning camel milk into goods is complicated by these variations.

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Grain at Risk: Confronting Wheat Blast and Global Food Security

Neha Singh and Kanhaiya Lal Bairwa

Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum (MoT), a recently discovered wheat blast fungus, posing an imminent threat to the world's wheat output. The fungus responsible for rice blast disease is a unique, exceptionally diversified lineage of M. oryzae. Wheat head infection can lead to 100% yield losses, causing spike bleaching, resulting in no grain or shrivelled grain with low test weight. An integrated management program is recommended for managing the dangerous wheat disease due to limited fungicide efficiency and the absence of resistant types. Understanding the disease's epidemiology and developing a real-time disease monitoring system is crucial for effective management. Understanding the fungus's infection biology and interactions with wheat plants is also essential. Genome-based methods are used to identify MoT field isolates, utilizing unique disease markers, allowing for evolutionary change due to the significant genetic and pathotype variety in the fungal population.

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Insect Vectors: The Secret Agents of Plant Disease

Laxman Singh Saini and Mangal Sukhi Meena

In the intricate world of plant health, insects often act as covert vectors, facilitating the spread of plant diseases. This article explores the role of insect vectors in transmitting pathogens that affect crops and natural ecosystems. Insects unwittingly ingest and transmit microscopic plant pathogens during their feeding activities. This has significant implications for agriculture, as insect vectors can cause substantial damage to crops, and natural ecosystems, where invasive insects disrupt native plant populations. Effective mitigation strategies, such as integrated pest management, are crucial for reducing insect vector populations and minimizing disease transmission while minimizing pesticide use.

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Bioremediation-A Biological Approach for Pollution Management

K. R. Vijayalatha et al.

A developing green technology called bioremediation makes easier to remove or degrade harmful chemicals from soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and the air. Microorganisms that attack contaminants enzymatically and transform them into harmless compounds are the essential component of bioremediation. Bioremediation is used only in environments that support microbial growth and activity, as its application frequently entails changing environmental variables to promote microbial growth and breakdown at a quicker rate.

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Standardization of Suitable Mordant for Terminalia catappa L Leaf dye for Textile Dyeing through Aqueous Extraction

M. Gowsalya et al.

In this research, an experiment was carried out to standardize the suitable mordant for Terminalia catappa L leaf (Red and Yellow) dye for an alternate textile dyeing. The dye was extracted through aqueous methods with addition of different mordant. From the research the different colour was noticed from different mordants. Results suggested that pre mordanting dyeing method with heating improves dyeing abilities in Cotton, Wool and Silk fabrics. This has been done to test the quality of dyeing in Cotton, Silk and Wool.

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Voice of Client: A Key to Success

Dr. Mohit Kumar et al.

The "Voice of the Client" (VOC) is a fundamental concept in the realm of client-centric businesses and service industries. This abstract provides an overview of the significance and key components of VOC, highlighting its role in enhancing service quality and client satisfaction. VOC refers to the process of actively listening to and gathering feedback from clients or customers, with the aim of gaining insights into their needs, preferences, and experiences. It involves various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, social media monitoring, and direct interactions, to create a comprehensive picture of the client's perspective. The primary objective of capturing the Voice of the Client is to understand and align service offerings with client expectations. Organizations utilize this feedback to make data-driven decisions and implement targeted improvements in their products, services, and processes. By doing so, they can enhance client satisfaction, loyalty, and retention rates.

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Tomato Seed Production: Ensuring Quality and Purity

L. Akshaya et al.

The Solanaceae family encompasses more than 2,600 species, notably the versatile and nutrient-rich tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), second only to potatoes in global popularity. Tomatoes are prized for their vibrant red hue and rich lycopene content, offering essential nutrients such as ascorbic acid, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium. Thriving in warm, moderately humid conditions (80-90?F during the day, above 60?F at night), tomatoes require careful seed production practices. Breeding, land selection, isolation, nursery management, and weed control are critical for robust yields. Disease and pest management, rigorous standards, and harvesting methods ensure high-quality tomato seeds, culminating in extraction techniques like fermentation and chemical separation.

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New Innovations in Agriculture Extension: Empowering Farmers for a Sustainable Future

Anushka Khare et al.

This abstract highlights the emerging innovations in agriculture extension services aimed at empowering farmers for a sustainable future. Agriculture plays a pivotal role in global food security and environmental sustainability, making effective extension services crucial. This paper explores recent advancements such as digital technology integration, data-driven decision-making tools, and precision agriculture techniques, enabling farmers to optimize crop yield, reduce resource inputs, and mitigate environmental impacts. Furthermore, it discusses the importance of farmer-centric approaches, emphasizing knowledge sharing, skill development, and community engagement. These innovations foster resilience in the face of climate change and economic uncertainties, ultimately contributing to a more sustainable agricultural landscape. By examining these trends and their potential impact on farming communities, this paper sheds light on the transformative power of modern agriculture extension services in shaping a sustainable future.

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Environmental Concerns Surrounding Plastics Use in Agriculture

Manish Kumar Maurya et al.

Plastics play a significant role in agriculture, serving various purposes like coating seeds and mulch film. They have contributed to enhanced crop yields, but there's a growing body of evidence suggesting that as plastics degrade, they contaminate the soil, negatively affecting biodiversity and soil quality. This, in turn, can result in decreased productivity and pose potential threats to both long-term food security and the environment. While efforts are underway to enhance the manufacturing and handling of plastic-containing agricultural products, it is also essential to explore a broader approach to food production, including nature-based solutions.

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Nano Urea: An Efficient Tool for Precision Agriculture and Sustainability

Ankita Yadav et al.

Nano urea is a promising alternative to conventional urea for improving nitrogen use efficiency in agriculture. However, the nitrogen holding capacity of nano urea is a critical factor in its effectiveness as a fertilizer. Prills /granular urea are not only costly for the producer but may be harmful to humans and the environment. Furthermore, nano Urea may also be used for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance. Nano-Urea prevents environmental pollution and improves physiological traits of wheat grown under drought stress conditions. The nano urea consists of higher surface area because lesser in size of the nano particle and have high reactivity, solubility in water. Nano Urea are the important tools in agriculture to improve crop efficiency, yield and quality parameters with increase nutrient use efficiency, reduce wastage of fertilizers and cost of cultivation. Nano-urea is very effective for precise nutrient management in precision agriculture with matching the crop growth stage for nutrient and may provide nutrient throughout the crop growth period. Nano-Urea increase crop growth up to optimum concentrations further increase in concentration may inhibit the crop growth due to the toxicity of nutrient. Nano-Urea provide more surface area for different metabolic reactions in the plant which increase rate of photosynthesis and produce more dry matter and yield of the crop. It also prevents plant from different biotic and abiotic stress.

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An Introduction to Organic Farming

Ankita Yadav et al.

Organic farming, also known as ecological farming or biological farming, is an agricultural system that uses fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping, and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally-occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances. Organic farming advocates claim advantage in sustainability, self-sufficiency, autonomy and independence, health, food security and safety. Organic farming can be beneficial on biodiversity and environmental protection at local level. However, because organic farming has sometimes lower yields compared to intensive farming, additional agricultural land is needed elsewhere in the world, which means that natural and forest land has to be converted into agricultural land.

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The New Integrated Pest Management Paradigm for the Modern Age

Narendra Deshwal et al.

Integrated pest management, also known as integrated pest control is a broad-based approach that integrates both chemical and non-chemical practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the economic injury level. Integrated pest management includes methods to maintain grain quality and inhibit insect infestation, monitoring tools and strategies to determine when corrective actions are needed, and management tools available to suppress infestations from stored product insects. The implementation of physical, mechanical, and chemical methods to monitor, prevent, and manage stored grain is key to IPM success in bulk storage and processing facilities and finally in the marketplace.

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Biofertilizer for Crop Production and Soil Fertility

Narendra Deshwal et al.

Biofertilizers are the substances containing variety of microbes having the capacity to enhance plant nutrient uptake by colonizing the rhizosphere and make the nutrients easily accessible to plant root hairs. Biofertilizers are well known for their cost effectiveness, environment-friendly nature, and composition. These are effective alternatives to the hazardous synthetic fertilizers. The availability of bio-fertilizers also helps to boost productivity per acre in a relatively short amount of time, use less energy, reduce soil and water contamination, improve soil fertility, and promote biological control of phytopathogenic organisms. Numerous such advantages exist from an economic, social, and environmental perspective thanks to the use of biofertilizers.

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Black Rice: The Astonishing Benefits and a Promising Superfood

Wakambam Elison et al.

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple cereal crop in developing nations, with black rice emerging as a distinctive variety due to its black bran encasing the endosperm. Notably, the aromatic and pigmented "Chakhao" type has gained popularity in Asia. Recent times have witnessed a substantial rise in the demand and consumption of black rice, driven by its perceived health benefits. Unlike conventional staples, black rice is valued for its functional properties, attributed to its high anthocyanin content, the key bioactive compound responsible for its unique coloration. Anthocyanins, as water-soluble pigments, contribute to black rice's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory attributes, positioning it as a promising ingredient in superfood or functional food product development. This aligns with the growing interest in nutrient-rich dietary options with potential health-enhancing properties.

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