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Volume(4) / Issue(1)

Volume 4, Issue 1- Contents

January, 2023

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Climate-Friendly Gardening: Understanding the Science of Linking Plants and Nature to Combat Climate Change

Bhati M I et. al.

Climate change and urbanization are two of the recent burning issues which are not only linked together but also need urgent action to overcome it. Earth's atmosphere acts as a greenhouse. Sun rays that enter the earth's atmosphere are caught within and the gas responsible for trapping them are called greenhouse gases. These gases are majorly produced by the urbanized world leaving a much greater carbon footprint. Hence, there are constant efforts in order to reduce the release of these gases. Climate resilient activities focus mainly on improving technologies and the organization of work which can significantly lower heat-trapping gases. Such a daily activity, gardening at some level is also involved in it, however, the article presents how these modified activities can be of great help to create a sustainable environment.

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Cottonseed Oil: Physicochemical Attribute, Health Benefits and Applications

Kanika Sharma et. al.

Cotton plant is not only a source of fibre but it also provides around 4% of the world's vegetable oil supply. Cottonseed oil is obtained from the cottonseed after using various extraction methods such as solvent extraction, mechanical pressing of seeds, microwave assisted extraction, ultrasound extraction and enzyme assisted extraction methods. Raw cottonseed oil is refined using various processes to eliminate the gossypol, a toxic compound present in cottonseed. But after refining, bleaching and deodorization, the gossypol content of CSO gets reduced to safe limit for human consumption and also the odor, color and flavor becomes suitable for cooking. It has various properties including cardio-protection, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties owing to high content of linoleic acid and tocopherols. Refined cottonseed oil has promising applications in food industries for frying and baking due to its high smoke point and stability. Furthermore it is considered as heart healthy oil because it contains more than 73% unsaturated fatty acids including approximately 52% linoleic acid and 21% oleic acid.

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Bio-fertilizers: Types and Significance

Rajnish Kumar et. al.

Population growth puts enormous pressure on the country's land and other natural resources, causing harm to the agricultural ecological base and serious problems of socioeconomic concerns. Increased agricultural production for several years have somewhat accelerated the loss of crop nutrients fourfold over the past four decades, placing a four time the pressure on land resources. Restoring nutrients that have been depleted during transplanting by making use of chemical inputs is strongly discouraged because their longterm use has been shown to slow down biological activity in the soil leading to decreased soil health, taking the path of managing soil fertility to prevent soil degradation and to support optimal agricultural production. In this framework, the use and production of biological fertilizers in agriculture is considered very important. 

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Nursery Raising as a Profitable Enterprise: A Success Story of Ankur Plantation

Rajesh Kumar Meena et. al.

The present success story focuses on the life of Mr. Sunil Kumar, who can be an inspiration for others. His eagerness to learn supported him to achieve his dream. He born in a small village of Vaishali district. He started farming in the year of 1972 to fulfill the basic needs of family. In the year of 1987, he joined AICRP-Agroforestry as a field overseer with a salary of Rs. 11 per day. He learnt from the scientists of AICRP and also from the University nursery as he used to visit the nurseries during lunch hours. He was motivated by scientists and started his own nursery in 1995, which was emerged as registered nursery "Ankur Plantation" in 1987 at Dighra village of Samastipur district. Initially, he started supplying seeds and seedlings of forest trees to forest department then expanded his business and started supplying seeds, seedlings and stumps to MGNREGA, JEEVIKA and other small nurseries. At present, he is not only supplying seedlings of forest trees but also providing ornamental plants in the University.

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Bionomics and Management of the American Serpentine Leaf Miner, Liriomyza trifolii in Gerbera

Suman et. al.

Leaf miners are a polyphagous pest that can infest a number of horticulture crops. This native leaf miner has found in eastern united states, northern south America and Caribbean. Due to insufficient quarantine practises, it is currently spreading to many parts of the world. However, in recent years it has been introduced into California, Europe and elsewhere. Misuses or exploitation of pesticides and their effects on natural enemies is the most frequently noted cause of the outbreak of leaf miners. Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess), sometimes known as the American serpentine leaf miner, readily infests greenhouse flower crops. The American serpentine leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii) is highly polyphagous and thus lives on many host plants such as chrysanthemum, gerbera, marigold and many other horticultural crops. The most direct damage is caused by larvae mining the leaf tissues which can lead to desiccation premature leaf-fall and cosmetic damage. In tropical areas this can lead to burning symptoms in flower. The larvae actually live in the leaf, between the outer skin layers. Crushing larval from the leaves is most effective killing method. Alternatives include neem oil, Bt spray, and Spinosad spray as well as beneficial insects such as entomopathogenic nematodes and parasitic wasps. Prevention using lures, sticky traps and floating row covers is highly effective.

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Microbial Mediated Biological Pulping of Lignocellulosic Biomass

Ajinath Dukare et. al.

In paper and pulp industry, pulping of biomass is mainly achieved through chemical methods, which are generally environmentally polluting and not sustainable. The pulping is the preliminary processing step in the paper and pulp industry, which is mainly aimed to remove lignin component of wood without any degradation of cellulose fibres and improve the overall quality of pulp. To overcome the disadvantages of chemical pulping. Biopulping using microorganisms, especially, fungi capable of degrading wood as well as its lignin constituent can be utilized. More often, biopulping is combined with chemical pulping i.e. successful fungal pretreatment of wood chips before chemical pulping improves penetration of cooking chemicals into wood chips and thus reduces the cooking time. Furthermore, the mechanical energy consumption can be also reduced by utilizing biopulping approach. Hence, application of microbial technology could be a cost effective and eco-friendly alternative in the pulp and paper industry.

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Regenerative Agriculture-A Review

Abhinav Yadav et. al.

The increasing global demand for food can be met by agricultural land expansion or intensification in time and space. For the past 5 decades, the dominant form of agricultural development has been intensification with low consideration of the environmental effects. Over the last few decades, standard land use and commercial farming practices have negatively impacted on land suitable for food production. Instead of creating soil that's rich in nutrients and sequestered carbon, these practices reduce soil arability. In the current scenario day by day population of world is increase which across 9.8 billion till the 2050. At present world agriculture under pressure for nurture this increasing population. One potential way to reverse the negative effects of industrial agriculture is a system of agricultural principles called regenerative farming. A system of farming principles and practices that increases biodiversity, enriches soils, improves watersheds, and enhances ecosystem services. Regenerative agricultural practices aim to improve the well-being of our environment by increasing soil fertility, biodiversity, water retention and cleanliness, and soil carbon sequestration.

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ZIKA-A New Emerging Challenge to Public Health

Manisha Doot et. al.

The Zika virus is an arbovirus that is spread by insects and belongs to the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. Zika virus was first discovered in a non-human animal (a rhesus monkey). The bite of an infected mosquito is the main method of zika virus transmission. Zika virus sickness has a non-specific clinical presentation that makes it easy to confuse with other infectious diseases, particularly those brought on by arboviruses like dengue and chikungunya. Only laboratory examinations of blood or other bodily fluids can confirm an infection with the Zika virus. The preventive strategies include limiting the Aedes mosquito's population growth, getting rid of it, and stopping mosquito bites.

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Genetically Modified-Mustard

Narendra Padra et. al.

A large number of genetically modified (GM) crops, including both food and non-food crops carrying novel traits have been developed and released for commercial agriculture production. The severity of food security and malnourishment problem in most of Asian and developing countries. GM crops could be an option for nutrients enhancement and yield increase in major crops and solve the problem of malnourishment and food security. In India, On October 2022, the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change recommended the environmental release of the transgenic hybrid mustard DMH-11 for seed production and conduct of field demonstration studies with respect to its effects, if any, on honey bees and other pollinating insects. The increasing cultivation of genetically modified crops has raised a wide range of concerns with respect to food safety.

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Terrarium: The Miniature World of Plants

Vishal Srivastava et. al.

A terrarium is a technique in which closed, sealable glass or plastic container filled with small plants. It is more useful for small plants that are not suitable for ordinary homes atmosphere. When properly grown and placed, they offer a new way to grow a variety of plants without much care. It is very easy to assemble and will go strong for months without much attention. The main purpose of the terrarium is to create a small scene of woodland. The reasons behind indoor gardening are simply pleasure, satisfaction, and reduction of indoor air pollution. Indoor gardens can be placed in homes, offices, restaurants, or anywhere that needs life and color. With limited outdoor space, need to imitate the nature in the indoor garden farm. Terrariums are a best addition for any space for a multitude of reasons. It makes a great gift and adds a charming natural element to any interior space.

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Increase in Production of Different Vegetable Crops by Using Plastic Mulch

Rahul Kumar et. al.

The rapid population increase poses a major barrier for both effective and sustainable agriculture operations because availability of arable lands is limited. We must embrace strategies for sustaining our agricultural expansion in order to feed the world's growing population, so conservation farming is one such strategy. The implementation of mulching techniques in our agricultural fields is the best solution. Ancient agriculture already made use of organic particles as mulch. Due to advantages such as a rise in soil temperature, a decrease in weed pressure, moisture conservation, a decrease in some insect pests, higher crop yields, and a more effective use of soil nutrients, it has grown to be a crucial practice in contemporary field production. Plastic mulches are primarily used to protect seedlings and shoots through insulation and evaporation prevention, thus maintaining or slightly increasing soil temperature and humidity. Plastics are the most extensive use as mulching materials and especially black polyethylene is used almost everyplace due to its low price and proved positive results in production.

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Export Performance of Fresh Pomegranates from India

Shreeshail Rudrapur and Deepa Hiremath

The study was conducted to know the export performance of fresh pomegranates from India for a period of 15 years (2006-07 to 2020-21). Compound annual growth rate and instability index analysis were used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. The export quantity as well as export value of fresh pomegranate exported from India are showing a positive annual growth rates of 7.78 per cent and 18.81 per cent, respectively and both are found to be significant at 1 per cent.

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Problems and Prospects of Cottage Industry

Payal M. Patel and Dr. Mahesh R. Prajapati

The cottage industry provides employment opportunities, and women empowerment, and assures equitable distribution of national income. In the cottage industry products are produced at a low level and work is done by skilled workers. Cottage products are uniquely reflecting the traditional myths, folklores, religious beliefs, cultural ethos, and rich heritage of India. Metal crafts, wood crafts, bamboo products, products made from glass, khadi, handloom, and handicraft products are major parts of the cottage industry. Every state and region of India has some expertise in producing some special products. Patan patola of Gujarat and Kashmiri pashmina shawls of Kashmir are famous for their embroidery. The cottage industry has a long and traditional history in India. A number of crafts had been developing since then. The concept of a cottage industry in rural India has suffered greatly since the start of British rule. This industry faces challenges such as limited availability of raw materials, non-availability of timely and adequate credit, inefficient management and marketing, and competition with large-scale industries. There are government organizations, schemes, and programs that are contributing to flourishing the cottage industries in India. The cottage industry needs change in traditional marketing practices, provision of adequate credit, infrastructure, technological support, and branding of products.

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Parthenium is Serious Issue for Indian Agriculture and Human Health

Rajesh Kumar Meena et. al.

Parthenium is aggressive annual herb weed; it is belonging to family Asteraceae. Parthenium is native of Tropical America and now days it is found thought out the globe and aggressively found in more than 20 countries and it is also found throughout the all India. Parthenium is solely responsible for causing many diseases in humans and animals, due to the parthenium causing asthma in adult human and allergic bronchitis, particularly in children's playing outside. Furthermore parthenium also affects local vegetation biodiversity, function of ecosystem, the soil properties and soil nutrients. Therefore it is essential to control the growth of parthenium.

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Export Performance of Major Spices from India

Mohit Kumar and Rohit Kumar Sharma

Since India is a net exporter of agricultural commodities, the foreign earnings from exports will fund the import of capital goods, paving the way for increased investment, which will result in technological advances, eventually leading to increased productivity and efficiency. As the international market becomes more competitive, it is critical to increase production and productivity while lowering cultivation costs in order to make Indian spices globally competitive. Thus, in order to highlight the competitive countries in the international market for spice exports, a competitiveness analysis was conducted to assist exporters and farmers in identifying spice-demanding markets.

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Agri-Startups in India

Mohit Kumar and Rohit Kumar Sharma

On the one hand, India is quickly becoming one of the world's largest markets, second only to China. On the other hand, India has a number of major issues to address, including education, infrastructure, agriculture, logistics, retail, and healthcare. This combination provides the most fertile ground for new enterprises. The incomes and consumption of not only the thriving middle class, but also the rural economy, are increasing rapidly. Startups will develop innovative descriptive business models to address the challenges that India faces. This is the most significant impact that startups will have on the Indian economy. This article provides an in-depth understanding of the Indian startup ecosystem.

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Nematode Management in Mushroom

P. Latha et. al.

The cropping pattern of mushrooms is characterized by a quick succession of fleshes at intervals of 6-8 days within a short duration of 6-8 weeks. Often the mushrooms are consumed fresh immediately after harvest. Thus, a specific management strategy needs to be planned for nematodes associated with this crop. Use of heat has been the most successful method of nematode control in mushroom cultivation. Biological control, if exploited, has a great potential in this crop. The possible biocontrol agents, advantageous to mushrooms are microorganisms, materials/ extracts, tolerant strains, and host resistance.

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Recent Advances in Mushroom Breeding Strategies

P. Latha et. al.

Increasing the yield and quality of crops as well as resistance to diseases are the primary goals for mushroom breeders in mushroom research. Methods of mass selection based on natural chance mutation as well as cross breeding and transgenic breeding are some of the methods carried out for this purpose. Protoplast fusion between different mushroom species, for example white and brown oyster mushrooms are experimented to obtain high productivity and long storage life.

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A Vegetable and Turmeric Grower's Success with More Crop Per Drop and Natural Mulching: Success Story

Nidhi Kumari et. al.

Raju Ranjan Kumar, a 39-year-old is a progressive farmer belongs to Itha village of Muraul block, Muzaffarpur district, Bihar and his educational qualification is Intermediate in arts (I.A.) subject and he is having an area of 4acre (own) and 1 acre on lease. He is from an agrarian family. He has adopted the advanced technologies for farming. He mechanized his farms through micro irrigation system and adopted various implements like: maize shellar and weeder. He also disseminated his knowledge to other farmers through demonstration in Itha village, the techniques horizontally spread among 150 farmers.

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Diversification of Old Textile and Apparel

Neelam Saini and Dr. Saroj Yadav

Shopping responsibly is the first step in reducing the waste of a lot of clothing. Eco-friendly clothing that is made from recycled or biodegradable materials is becoming more popular. These materials lessen the amount of textiles which can take a very long time to degrade that end up in landfills. Different steps are used for recycling process for development of new ones. Recycling process has many environmental benefits i.e. reduction in landfill which reduce the gases under land or atmosphere, animal health issues also decrease can make eco friendly products by without using any chemicals or dyes etc. At present time global warming is also increasing so by use of recycling process this can also be decrease at small level.

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Role of Insects in Pollination

Balakrishna, B.

Crop plants are the major sources for meeting human food requirements. Crop production not only depend on good agricultural practices but also weather conditions and other biotic factors. Among the biotic factors insects (bees, moths and butterflies) are playing immense role in increasing the crop production by the process of pollination. In all sexually producing crop plants pollination is the only way to increase economic yield. But in the name of development humans are creating unfavorable situations for increasing insect population indirectly leads to reducing crop yields. So there is a great need to change in human activities for getting sustainable crop yields.

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Different Strategies of Integrated Pest Managemet against Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) on Pea crops (Pisum sativum L.)

Ashutosh Singh Aman et. al.

The Pea pod borer Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) belongs to order Lepidoptera and family Pyralidae, also commonly known as pulse pod borer moth, Lima bean pod borer and Legume pod moth is the most destructive cosmopolitan pest. Its Economic Threshold Level (ETL) is 10% affected parts. This pest is a major, serious nocturnal pest of pea field crop, which cause 50.9% pod infestation with 77.64% seed damage. As lots of drawbacks and disadvantages of chemical pesticides. To make farmers aware and update about novel insecticides and some innovative approaches for pest management and different suitable and safer management tactics, which empowering the farmers to adopt Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tactics.

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Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: A Potential Therapeutic Agent

Mansi Tiwari and Amita Beniwal

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is a perennial tree belonging to family Oleaceae. It is commonly known as 'night jasmine', Parijatha or Harsingar. This plant has long history of being utilized in traditional medicine for its wide array of applications. It has been used as an anti-oxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-viral, hypoglycemic, hypolipoidemic, anti-helminthic agent etc. owing to its phytochemicals present in it.

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Biotechnological Approaches in Post Harvest Management of Horticultural Crops

Dr. Manisha Kachari et. al.

In recent days the population is shifting from a rural area to urban area at high concentration. This situation creates critical condition to the vegetable and fruits growers to supply the right food to the right place with a minimum post-harvest loss. Rapid increase in population and food demand put together researchers to work not only to improve the nutritional quality and food quantity but also to increase the shelf life of horticulture crops by using the biotech engineering. A technique called genetic modification can be used in the vegetables and fruits to enable plants to tolerate the biotic and abiotic stresses, resistant to pests and diseases, improve nutritional value and increase the shelf life of the fruits and vegetable products. The plant hormone ethylene influences many aspects of plant growth and development, such as fruit ripening and leaf senescence, which is the main player in vegetables and fruit degradation in the long run of post-harvest. Therefore, if we can take the help of biotechnology and target the gene for biosynthesis of ethylene, we can delay the process of senescence and can preserve the food for longer duration without facing the loss due to degradation by senescence.

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Evolution of Herbicide Phytotoxicity and Herbicide Persistence in Soil by Bioassay Method

Y. Yernaidu et. al.

A bioassay is a technique for determining if herbicide (or other chemical) residues are present and bioavailable in soil or water at high enough concentrations to adversely affect plant growth. This is a simple, economical, and direct method to determine if it is safe to seed or plant into areas previously treated with herbicides or into soil with an unknown history of herbicide use. In its simplest form, a bioassay uses susceptible plants to identify if the herbicide is present in concentrations high enough to inhibit germination and alter plant growth. However, scientists sometimes use sensitive bioassay species to estimate herbicide concentrations in soil and water, and to identify unknown herbicide residues from exhibited injury symptoms. When newly seeded or established plants show seemingly unexplained symptoms of injury, stress, or decline. Also, when seeding or planting sensitive plant species into areas previously treated with residual herbicides. Topsoil from abandoned farm land can often contain herbicide residues that can injure many plants. Another too common occurrence is the presence of herbicide residues in compost (both commercial and municipal). Additionally, if you suspect that another product may have been contaminated with an herbicide, both the product and treated soil can be tested using a bioassay.

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Agriculture Water Management for Improving Crop Productivity

Anuj Kumar et. al.

Water is the most crucial input for agricultural production. Taking into consideration of the alarming fact of water crisis, there is a need to efficient management of water to conserve the precious input. Strategies for efficient management of water for agricultural use involves conservation of water, integrated water use, optimal allocation of water and enhancing water use efficiency by crops.

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Integrated Management of Potato Tuber Moth (PTM) Phthorimaea Operculella

Sudheer Kumar et. al.

The potato tuber moth is a serious pest that affects potato production and storage. Since the market value of the infected tubers has been completely reduced, it is more significant in the stores. Attract-and-kill was highly effective at reducing male flight activity and significantly reduced daily moth catches in pheromone-baited water traps (by 51.8-99.9%) in comparison with untreated plots. Botanicals are especially efficient in the form of antifeedant, repellent, protectants, and growth-disrupting hormones. They are also sources of secondary metabolites that are safer than synthetic insecticides.

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Natural Farming in the Context of Sustainable Development Goals

Vicky Yadav and Bineeta Satpathy

By 2024, the A.P. government and APNCF (A.P. Community Natural Farming) hope to convert 8 million acres of land and 6.5 million farmers to natural farming. Natural farming is more efficient and requires less energy. Conventional systems emit 40% of greenhouse gases. According to Japanese farmer and philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka, natural farming produces the same amount of production as conventional farming. Natural farming offers a healthy environment with no or low use of external inputs. To avoid the ill effects of conventional farming, we need to adopt chemical-free agriculture for safe food and better health. Natural farming has the potential to mitigate climate change and reduce GHG emissions. Natural farming has the potential to help achieve the goal of sustainable development.

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Ladybird Beetle (Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus): A Crucial Predator of Aphids

Arun Kumar et. al.

The ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata Linn.) is a crucial predator of the aphids that feeds on them. The attention on biological control is largely a result of the development of pesticide resistance or resurgence as well as their toxicity to non-target organisms. Both beneficial and harmful insects are adversely affected by chemical insecticides. Natural enemies (predators or parasitoids) are applied in biological control to manage pest populations below dangerous level. The most efficient and eco-friendly approach of pest management is typically biological control. Aphids are controlled biologically by aphid-eating ladybirds, or "aphidophagous" insects. So, using predators to reduce or minimize pests and their impacts is a method of biological control that is maintain the pest defender ratio.

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Eco-Friendly Technology for Production of Bio CNG

Debarati Gupta et. al.

There are different agroindustry by-products produced such as peanut shell, corn cob, rice sand wheat straw, bagasse, sawdust, pressmud, etc. The management these agroindustry by-products is a serious issue and hence needs solution for this. The agroindustry byproducts when mixed with cowdung can be used for the generation of biogas. The biogas generated can be further compressed and desulphurised to produce BioCNG. The BioCNG produced can be used as fuel in vehicles alternate to petrol and diesel. This will be very ecofriendly and economical technology.

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Springtails and their Role in Maintaining Soil Health

Kangkanjyoti Bhattacharyya and Pooja Kumari

Springtails are small six-legged animals and their distribution ranges from urbanized areas to Antarctica. They are omnivorous, free-living invertebrates that like moist habitats. Even though they don't take part in the breakdown of organic matter, they end up supporting this by disintegrating organic matter and maintaining the microbial diversity in the soil. Here, this article is about the food habits of springtails and their role in maintaining soil health.

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Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Vicinity of Protected Area: Issues and Management

Shailesh et. al.

The Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is a common problem from the past and has become a very danger issue around the globe. Increase human activities into protected area leads to Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) which is also known as Man-Wildlife conflict. Loss of crop, property, livestock and human causalities are the very serious problems of HWC. Out of these problems? human killing and killing of livestock are major problems of such kind of conflict.

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Role of Organic Farming in Agriculture

Sunidhi Tiwari and R.G. Upadhayay

Organic farming is a method of production of crops as well as the livestock which excludes the use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers and genetically modified organisms, antibiotics and other growth hormones. The principle or foremost aim of organic production to develop the enterprises which are sustainable and eco-friendly. The basic need of organic farming is to conserve the environment from the harmful chemicals and to preserve the soil health. Organic farming helps in promoting the use of crop rotation, integrated pest and disease management and other soil conservation techniques.

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Pokkali-The Unrivalled Treasure of Coastal Belt of Central Kerala for Rice, Fish and Shrimp Culture

Megha S. Vinod et. al.

The fields of Pokkali are unique in terms of its ecological and economic role. The ancient society has always vested in nature for their survival in terms of food and goodness; hence the culture practices back then were sustainable. But unfortunately, with the rising pressure of population and also due to the over exploitation of natural resources, the natural way of cultivation has got replaced with practices harming nature using science and technology. This has to be stopped for ensuring sustenance and thus comes the importance of traditional integrated culture practices like Pokkali in the present scenario. The Pokkali fields are highly nutritive with paddy and prawn as alternate crops. The system encompasses within itself huge biodiversity and therefore its significance is important. A detailed study of the different aspects of the culture practice will therefore be highlighted the content of this article.

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Occupational Skin Diseases in Farm Women

Dr. Jyoti Nayak et. al.

Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) result from or become aggravated by working environments or skin contact with substances used at work. Although OSDs can manifest in various forms, such as contact dermatitis, actinic keratosis, neoplasm, dermatophytosis, acne, and foreign body granulomas,1,2 allergic or irritant contact dermatitis accounts for 70-95% of all OSDs. Therefore, OSDs are also referred to as occupational dermatitis. Agricultural farm women engaged in outdoor activities are susceptible to numerous factors in their environment that may result in work related hazards. Exposure to chemical substances is a leading cause of occupational skin diseases. It is obvious because the worker's first line of contact with its environment, aside from the respiratory tract, is the skin. Occupational skin disease has important public health ramifications because it is a common occupational disease; and it shouldn't be ignored as it has a significant psychosocial and financial impact on individuals.

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Loss of Biodiversity: The Current Status on the World's Bird Life

Deepshikha Sharma and Ambika Rajendran

Biodiversity or Biological diversity is all the different varieties of life on Earth- the variety of animals, plants, fungi, different microorganism that make up our natural world. It comprises the number of species, their genetic variation and the interaction of these life forms within complex ecosystems. In a UN report published in 2019, scientists warned that one million species - out of an estimated total of eight million - are threatened with extinction, many within decades. Earlier known mass extinctions wiped out between 60% and 95% of all species. It takes millions of years for ecosystems to recover from such an event.

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