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Volume(4) / Issue(3)

Volume 4, Issue 3- Contents

March 2023

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Red Rot Disease: A Havoc to Sugarcane Cultivation in Odisha

Swagatika Mohanty et. al.

Sugarcane is the main source of sugar in India along with jaggery and many by-products like ethanol, bagasse, molasses, khandsari etc. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane in the world after Brazil. Sugarcane is a long duration crop (12 to 18 months) having huge biomass. So, it is affected by several diseases from which red rot is the most important one. In recent years, this disease has created havoc in Uttar Pradesh i.e. in Co 0238 variety. It is considered as the "cancer" of sugarcane. So, utmost care is needed to know the disease, its development, causal organism, disease cycle, epidemiology for the adoption of the proper management strategy.

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Soil Borne Pathogens and Their Management in Vegetable Crops

Ansuman Khandual and Swagatika Mohanty

Soil borne pathogens are very notorious since they confuse the farmer with the manifestation of aboveground symptoms. Since soil is not easy to replace, field and crop sanitation along with other measures make it feasible to manage these pathogens. A combination of cultural and chemical methods will yield fruitful results. To make this happen, a critical diagnosis of the signs and symptoms associated with the disease is of paramount importance.

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Overview on Coral Reef Ecosystem

Keerthivarman G. Subramanian

The total area of coral reef in India is estimated to be about 2,375 km2 which is less than 1 % of all the coral reef areas in the world. Hard corals are commonly referred to as "reef builders" due to the calcium carbonate skeletons they secrete. Soft corals are octacorallia while hard corals are hexacorallia. Corals reproduce sexually by either internal or external fertilization. Hermatypic corals are known to harbour Zooxanthellae in their body wall. Urban and industrial waste, sewage, agrochemicals, and oil pollution are poisoning reefs. Crown-ofthorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) is an echinoderm is a main predator for coral polyp. Warmer water temperatures can result in coral bleaching.

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Role of Indoor Plants in Improving Internal Atmosphere

Sudati Akshitha

Humans evolved on and have walked the earth for tens of thousands of years and throughout this time plants have played a vital role in human lifestyle. The evolutionary links with plants are deeply rooted in our genes and even today this manifests itself in a variety of ways. In the modern world we increasingly spend more time indoors either at the work place or at home. The internal environment can be improved with plants included as a component in the interiorscape of the buildings, They not only increase the aesthetic value of the interior, but also help in improving the internal environment.

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Artificial Intelligence Equipped Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Sustainable Agriculture

Rakhi Katoch et. al.

This article discusses the importance of sustainable agriculture and how artificial intelligence (AI)-equipped remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques can help achieve it. With the world population increasing and resources becoming insufficient to fulfil the demand-supply chain, traditional farming methods have become insufficient to serve the increasing demand. This has led to the use of harmful pesticides and hampering the soil. AI algorithms can process data collected by remote sensing devices to provide insights into the agricultural system, such as predicting crop yields and detecting changes in land use patterns. GIS techniques can help integrate data from different sources to provide a comprehensive understanding of the agricultural system. AI-equipped remote sensing and GIS techniques can pave the way for precision farming, precision irrigation, crop breeding, crop protection, and so on. Overall, the use of AI and GIS techniques in sustainable agriculture can help improve crop yields, reduce water usage, monitor soil health, control pests, and mitigate the impact of climate change.

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Precision Irrigation Management Using Modelling and Remote Sensing Approaches

Satyajit Panda et. al.

To attain the goal of optimum water and nutrient use efficiency, precision irrigation management uses the most effective irrigation techniques. For precision irrigation management, it is crucial to comprehend spatial field variation. As a constant and user-friendly source of data, satellite sensors and remote sensing technology have the potential to improve water management in irrigated areas and estimate crop water demand. Crop simulation models are used in irrigation management and crop production, and they have shown to be quite helpful in improving knowledge of the functioning of agricultural systems. Crop models running in real time can furnish data on irrigation development and yield progression of the crop. As a new technique for managing precision irrigation, a synergy between remote sensing and crop simulation models can be suggested.

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Microbial Insecticides: An Eco-friendly Approach for Bio-Intensive Pest Management

Hamendra Singh et. al.

Microbial insecticides are the exploitation of diseases causing organisms to reduce the population of insect pests below damaging levels. The microorganism?s that have been found suitable for microbial control are fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoa and nematodes. Over 3000 micro organisms have been reported to cause diseases in insect, viruses, protozoa, and nematodes. Among these bacteria are the potential microbial control agents and among them, Bacillus thuringiensis proved to be the superior one against lepidopteran caterpillars. Entomopathogenic nematodes are microscopic round worms that attack and kill insect caterpillars/ grub and thy continue their life cycle by reproducing with in the dead host. Spores of the entomopathogenic fungus adhere to the insect skin and on germination penetrate the body wall eventually killing the insect. The most commonly used are Metarhizium anisoplea against coconut rhinocerous beetle, Fusarium palidosarum against cowpea aphid and Paecilomyces liliaceneus against white flies. Cautious application of microbial insecticides will provide good control of insect pests, chiefly available and eco-friendly in nature.

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Custom Hiring Centre: A Means of Livelihood for Farm Women

Sabita Mishra et. al.

Improving livelihood of farm women creates a positive environment in the social and economic development of the nation. For rural women, agri-entrepreneurship is one of the sustainable livelihood approaches where the limited resources are skillfully utilized and value added to enhance income and employment of people. The resource base and needs of farm women of Jaguleipadar, Kanas, Puri were studied and a Custom Hiring Centre (CHC) was established to improve their livelihood. A Women Farmers Interest Group (WFIG) was created involving farm women from a number of SHGs for smooth running of the CHC. A spice grinding machine was installed in the CHC for value addition of farm produce and to improve the livelihood opportunity of the farmwomen and farmers. Besides, the CHC was also provided with various agricultural tools and equipments. The CHC supplied equipments and tools to needy farm women/ farmers on hiring basis which strengthened the financial base of the WFIG besides the income earned through the use of spice grinding machine.

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Soil Erosion Management for Agricultural Sustainability

Anjali Banga and Narender K. Sankhyan

Soil is a dynamic, living resource that is essential to the sustainable production of food and to maintain global biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. However, the combination of intensive farming activities, improper farming practices, rainfall regimes and topography conditions that takes place in agricultural land leads to soil erosion. In order to ensure food and environmental security of huge population, the pressure on agricultural system is tremendously increasing. The areas with human intervention have high rate of soil erosion of 2.4 t ha-1 yr-1 (Bhat et al. 2019). The control and prevention of soil erosion necessitate the development of an integral soil erosion control system with the incorporating methods based on the engineering, agricultural cultivation technology, law enforcement, biological methods, land planning, and management.

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Harvesting Future: The Transformative Role of AI and Machine Learning in Agriculture

Kiran Vishwakarma et. al.

Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are rapidly transforming agriculture by providing data-driven solutions for crop and livestock management, precision agriculture, and supply chain management. ML algorithms can analyze vast amounts of data from various sources such as sensors, drones, and satellite imagery to provide insights that can help farmers optimize resource use, improve crop yields and quality, monitor livestock health, and predict disease outbreaks. AI can also help farmers and food processors track the movement of products from farm to table, optimize logistics, and ensure food safety. Overall, ML and AI in agriculture are contributing to increased productivity, reduced costs, improved sustainability, and better food security for the growing global population.

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Overview on FAO's Blue Growth Initiative

Keerthivarman G. Subramanian and C. Lloyd Chrispin

Oceans and inland waters (lakes, rivers and reservoirs) are increasingly being recognised as critical to addressing many of the global challenges that the world will face in future decades, tend to range from world food security, poverty alleviation and climate change, natural resource provision, improved well-being, and medical care. Blue growth, also known as "blue economy," "green economy in a blue world," or "ocean economy," arose from the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) green economy concept.

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Value Addition of Ornamental Flower Crops

Vishal Srivastava et. al.

Value addition of flower crops is a process that enhances employment, economic value, and reduction of post harvest losses and to supply better quality for formers empowerment and below poverty line peoples. The floriculture industry includes ornamental plants, flowers (cut and loose) and also value-added products from flowers and flower parts that are earning huge amounts of money in the market and several industries are adding economic value and creating jobs. Flower value creation is the process of deriving genetic and processing changes and using innovative methods to increase the economic value and attractiveness of all floricultural products.

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Greenhouse Gases Emission from Paddy Cultivation and its Mitigation for Environmental Safety and Agricultural Sustainability

Mercy Chinneihoi Haokip and Narender K. Sankhyan

Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are important greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced from paddy fields. They play a significant role in increasing the global temperature as they have higher global warming potential as compared to carbon dioxide. Higher demand for rice compelled the farmers to increase its productivity through extensive use of water and fertilizers leading to food security whereas it also has adverse effects on the planet earth. CH4 is produced through methanogenesis under anaerobic condition of soil, while N2O is produced through two processes namely nitrification and denitrification under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Thorough understanding of the mechanisms of greenhouse gases production becomes necessary for adoption of proper mitigation strategies. Management practices such as appropriate use of nitrogen fertilizers, irrigation practices, high yielding varieties, integrated farming and amendments help in mitigating GHGs emission and also ensures environmental safety and agricultural sustainability.

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Overview and Farming Status of Litopenaeus Vannamei

Khushwant Singh Brar et. al.

One of the aquaculture industries with the fastest rate of growth is shrimp farming, which has recently gained popularity in India. The aim of diversifying the shrimp farming industry and reducing the dependence on the black tiger shrimp. The new species was found to be more resistant to diseases and had a faster growth rate than the black tiger shrimp, making it an attractive alternative. The first introduction of L. vannamei to India was in 2009, when the government allowed its importation for breeding and farming purposes. Any biosecurity program must include shrimp replenishment as a key element to the white leg shrimp farming industry. The farmers began to see the benefits of L. vannamei farming, it gained wider acceptance, and today, it has become the dominant shrimp species farmed in India.

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Soil Phosphorus Transformations in Relation to its Availability, Crop Productivity and Soil Health

Aparna R S et. al.

Phosphorus is the second most essential nutrient element for plant growth after nitrogen. It transforms in soil chemically and biologically and exist as organic and inorganic forms, out of which soluble inorganic forms are available to plants. Labile pool of phosphorus is the most available pool and non-labile pool is the least available pool of soil phosphorus. Availability of phosphorus in soil is generally low due to its slow diffusion and high fixation in both acidic and alkaline soils. Indiscriminate use of phosphatic fertilizers may lead to degradation of soil health, low crop yield and environmental quality. Application of organics, bio fertilizers, soil amendments or rock phosphate enriched compost along with chemical fertilizers is as an alternate over sole application of phosphatic fertilizers to enhance phosphorus use efficiency and crop productivity. Addition of organics reduces the fixation of soil phosphorus; also banding & subsurface placement of fertilizers and liming contribute to reduction in soil phosphorus fixation. This leads to increase in available pool of phosphorus which not only increases the uptake and yield of the crops but improves the soil health also.

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Aquamimicry: An Innovative Organic Approach for Shrimp Culture

Keerthivarman G Subramanian et. al.

Aquamimicry is a new method of approach to tackle the water quality problems that often occurs in shrimp pond and paves a new way to attain the organic status for the cultured organisms. At first, this method was performed in Thailand in 1990?s. In many areas when the shrimp is produced using this kind of culture method is often called as Organic shrimp or Vegetarian shrimp. Aquamimicry has many advantages over other methods of shrimp culture.

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Adaptation Under the "New Normal" of Climate Change: The Future of Extension Advisory Services

Naaz Bano et. al.

Since the domestication of crops and the emergence of sedentary societies, our species has never faced a more serious challenge than that which we are confronting in adapting to climate change. Climate change will exert increasing pressure on our ability to meet other major challenges, with feeding the world's growing population. This added demand has place extraordinary pressure on forests, fisheries, hydrologic systems and soils that are already overburdened, and it is particularly troubling for areas where people depend on already degraded systems for their survival. The environmental impacts of meeting rising food demand has intensified by climate change as global warming and changes in associated climate features accelerate degradation processes in vulnerable environments and lead to unknown interactions and feedback in the complex web of relationships among social, environmental, economic and food systems with ?uncertain consequences. Extension and advisory service (EAS) providers have an immensely important role to play in serving as a critical link between farmers and sources of new information and tools, and in aiding behavior change toward adapted practices among farming populations.

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Brucellosis: An Ongoing Global Public Health Challenge

Manisha Doot et. al.

Brucellosis is one of the most frequent contagious and communicable zoonotic illnesses, with significant rates of morbidity and permanent sterility. Intra- and inter-specific infection rates have dramatically increased in recent years as a result of inadequate management and scarce resources, particularly in developing nations. In cattle, poor milk production and a high body temperature are the main symptoms of abortion in the last trimester, whereas in humans, undulant fever, general fatigue, and arthritis are the main symptoms. The complexity of brucellosis means that it still presents a significant risk to both human and animal health in poor nations.

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DNA Barcoding-A Potent Tool for Taxonomic Studies

V. Sai Akhi et. al.

The traditional taxonomic classification is based on the most obvious similarities between species. It has been put in place long before the idea of evolution has emerged. Thus, using the most visible characters, the traditional classification does not accurately estimate the degree of relatedness between species, and it was not its original purpose. DNA barcoding is a modern approach developed to overcome these challenges. DNA barcoding is a system designed to provide accurate, fast and automatable species identification by using short and standardized gene regions as internal species tag. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene using in worldwide for taxonomic studies. In this paper, we are supposed to explain about DNA barcoding approach for taxonomic studies.

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Artificial Soils: Impact on Agricultural Sustainabilty

Samikhya Bhuyan et. al.

The use of artificial soil has significant effect on agricultural sustainability. Artificial soil can be used to enable the production of field crops and horticultural crop due to their good water holding capacity, aeration and more uptake of nutrients. Several compounds such as sand, peat, perlite, rockwool, sawdust, coco peat, compost, Sand, clay, , humic acids, granular soil and sewage sediment etc are used singly or in combination for growing high value crops.

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Soil Quality Assessment Through Least Limiting Water Range Indicators for Sustainable Crop Production

Aashin Sharma et. al.

The need for food is rising along with the alarming rate at which the world's population is growing. Soil quality has been deteriorating over the years and this has put sustainability of agricultural production at stake. The status of the soil must be periodically assessed in order to adopt the proper management practises to maintain or increase the quality. Physical properties of the soil have a direct impact on the chemical and biological processes in the soil, which are crucial factors in determining soil quality. The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) is one of the most popularly used soil physical quality index. It is the range of soil water content where there are fewest restrictions to plant growth in terms of soil water, aeration, and mechanical resistance. Many studies have established a positive relation between LLWR and both crop yields and total SOC content.

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Role of Geospatial Technology in Agriculture

MS. Anjna Gupta and Dr. R. L. Raut

The geospatial technology is an emerging technique to study real earth geographic information using Geographical Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and other ground information from various devices and instruments. In this chapter, various geospatial process-based techniques segregated into two different categories, i.e., conventional and advanced, are provided for agricultural water management.

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3D Printing Technique: An Emerging Opportunity for Soil Research

Ankita Chauhan et. al.

Soils, which are an essential part of the ecosystem, provide a wide range of goods for use in agriculture as well as other benefits to the well-being of humans. The health of the soil is influenced by a variety of factors including its physical composition, organic matter content, mineral content, presence of plants and microorganisms, and their spatial arrangement. Understanding how each soil type performs and comparing the features and benefits that each soil offers are both challenging tasks. Soil scientists are motivated to use new technology to produce new data or create novel research methods because of the ecological and environmental effects of soil function. One of these technologies with the potential to advance knowledge of soil characteristics is 3D printing. 3D printing is a ground-breaking technology that enables the quick and low-cost creation of infinitely replicable, identical, and configurable items for carrying out experiments. Rapid prototyping and 3D printing have opened up substantial, untapped prospects for manufacturing equipment in a fundamentally different approach.

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Applications and Benefits of Precision Livestock Farming

Avani Singh et. al.

PLF's major purpose is to make livestock production more economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable, which may be accomplished by observation, behaviour interpretation, and, if possible, individual management of animals. Additionally, using PLF to assist management practises may result in a reduction in farm environmental impact like reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions in the air, nitrates and antibiotic pollution in water bodies, phosphorus, antibiotics, and heavy metals in the soil.

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Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences

Katta Sravan Naga Parimala Kumar

Behavioral science is a vast field that studies human behaviour as well as the psychological and social elements that influence it. To examine and comprehend these complicated processes, behavioural scientists employ a variety of methodologies. Fundamental research, applied research, action research, exploratory research, descriptive research, diagnostic research, evaluative research, experimental research, analytical research, historical research, survey research, and case study research are some of the research methods available. Each of these methods has pros and cons, and researchers must choose the most appropriate method for their research problem, resources, and ethical considerations.

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Special Issue 2


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Fungal Disease Problems in Mustard Crop and Their Management

Pradeep Kumar Verma et. al.

The mustard crop is grown in tropical and subtropical as well as temperate zone. Mustard crops play an essential role in agricultural economy of India. The mustard may be caused many foliages diseases viz, leaf blight, white rust, and downy mildew and powdery mildew diseases that severe economic losses. It is managed by the sustainable practices which are cultural, mechanically, eco-friendly practices, and plant protection. The sustainable agriculture very crucial enhances the productivity and production of crops.

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Role of Nitrification Inhibitors and Controlled Release Fertilizers for Efficient Nitrogen Management

Neelakshi Sharma et. al.

Nitrogen is one of the essential nutrients required for plant growth and development. Nitrogen management requires great attention because of low use efficiency of nitrogenous fertilizers. It is evident that to achieve food security, farming community is largely dependent on chemical fertilizers. However, overuse of chemical fertilizers causes nutrient loss from agricultural fields owing to many loss pathways. Nitrogen also undergoes many losses when applied to soil viz., ammonia volatilization, denitrification, or nitrate leaching. To improve nitrogen use efficiency, it is essential to reduce its loss from soil. Use of nitrification inhibitors and controlled release fertilizers has been found useful to attain the goals of improved crop productivity and higher nutrient use efficiency.

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Strategic Applications of Nano-Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Benefits and Bottlenecks

Mohit Kashyap et. al.

The promising potential of nanotechnology to improve the agricultural sector by increasing the efficiency of agricultural inputs and offering solutions to agricultural and environmental problems for improving food productivity and security while maintaining the quality of the environment that is sustainable agriculture is one of the major global concerns which is the fundamental concept of nanotechnology in agriculture. A Nano-meter is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a meter. Hence, nanotechnology is manipulating matter on atomic levels.

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Modern Technologies in Improving the Plant Health-Special Reference to Plant Diseases

Vijay Kumar and Ashok Chhetri

Plant health management is very important field now a days because of the increasing stress on the agricultural land due to increase in population, infertility of land, and industrialization. So, tacking of these problems adaptation of the new generation of technologies very important, that is why every inch of the corner should be utilised. It's a fact that due to plant diseases attack could make agriculture suffer more than 10 % of the production. Now a days different modern technologies are there to solve the plant diseases which ultimately increases the production. New generation technologies are used currently are PCR based, different agro- Applications, remote sensing, drones, Imaging and Spectroscopic Approaches.

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Goat Milk: A Future Medicinal Food

Avani Singh et. al.

Humans need goat milk, especially those who struggle with lactose intolerance and are sensitive to the milk of other animals. Several consumable nutrients that are beneficial to both people and goats' young can be found in goat milk. Lactose, vitamins, enzymes, Fat, protein and mineral salts are a few of the essential components included in goat milk. Goat milk has more of the majority of its constituent parts than milk from other milk-producing animals. For instance, compared to cow's milk, goat's milk has 13% more calcium, 25% more vitamin B6, and 47% more vitamin A. Investigating the usage of goat milk for humans requires understanding the composition of goat milk. Moreover, goat milk is employed in the treatment of a variety of issues, such as digestive issues and respiratory problems.

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Keerajadi (Cordyceps militeris): A Medicinal Mushroom for Improvement of Human Health

Pradeep Kumar Verma et. al.

Keerajadi is a medicinal mushroom, over 400 different species of entomopathogenic fungi called cordyceps mushroom exist, in which two species of cordyceps are highly priorities for human health research. The cordyceps contain bioactive compound cordycepin helps in different nutraceutical and therapeutic potential is used as anti diabatic, antifungal, anti-aging, ancancer, sexuality and cardiovascular diseases.

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Visit to 'State Oil Seed Farm' Navlock in Walaja Block, Ranipet District, Tamil Nadu Visited by Students at Rural Agricultural Work Experience (RAWE) Programme

Syed Shamir et. al.

State oil seed farm, Navlock, Ranipet district was started in the year 1968 with the motto of production and supply of foundation class seeds like paddy, Millets, Pulses and Oil Seeds of required quantity with high purity. Later in the year 1985 SSF was converted in to State Oil Seed Farm (SOSF) in focus to the production of Oil seed varieties exclusively. The soil texture of the farm is fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam. The total cultivable area is 55 Acres. The seeds which are produced in SOSF are distributed to various agricultural Extension Centers of Ranipet Districts.

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Maize Production Technologies for Higher Yield in Bihar

Mohd. Hashim et. al.

Maize (Zea mays L) is the third most important food crops after rice and wheat in India. It is one of the most important and versatile crop of Bihar having wider adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions. It is grown for feed, fodder and industrial purposes. Maize serves as a basic raw material for thousands of industrial products such as starch, protein, oil, alcoholic beverages, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, gum, textile and paper industries. The climate of Bihar is best suited for the cultivation of maize crop and grown throughout the year for various purposes including grain, feed, fodder, green cobs, sweet corn, baby corn and pop corn. The United States of America (USA) is the largest producer of maize contributes nearly 35% of the total production in the world.

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Soil Health: Its Importance

Moharnab Sandillya et. al.

Soil health is a critical aspect of agricultural sustainability and environmental conservation in today's scenario. Healthy soil is not only essential for crop production but also for maintaining the overall health of the ecosystem. Degradation of soil health is a serious issue faced by farmers globally due to intensive land use, overuse of agrochemicals, and climate change. Soil degradation leads to reduce soil organic matter, agricultural productivity and increase pests and diseases susceptibility. Adopting sustainable land management practices such as conservation tillage, cover cropping, and agroforestry help to improve soil health and contribute to a more sustainable food system. In this article, we will explore the importance of soil health and how it can be improved through sustainable land management practices.

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Soil Erosion and Preventive Measures

R.S. Meena et. al.

Soil erosion is a process in which the upper layer of soil is carried from one place to another place by the action of wind and water. Due to growing human population and increasing the demand for food grains has generated changes in land use pattern and farming systems which has resulted in erosion. Erosion is one of the major problems and it has many effects on agricultural production. In arid regions the wind plays major role in soil erosion followed by water and human activities. A huge amount of soil is moved by wind from one place to another area and top soil is removed due to this soil become barren and unproductive. The major cause of soil erosion is human activities like cutting of forests, overgrazing, construction of roads, sand mining in rivers, stone mining in hills.

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Millets: Source for Fight Nutrition Insecurity and Climate Crisis

Dr. V. S. Meena et. al.

'Millets' were among the first crops to be domesticated in India with several evidence of its consumption during the Indus valley civilization. Being grown in more than 130 countries at present, Millets are considered traditional food for more than half a billion people across Asia and Africa. In India, millets are primarily a kharif crop, requiring less water and agricultural inputs than other similar staples. Millets are important by the virtue of its mammoth potential to generate livelihoods, increase farmers' income and ensure food & nutritional security all over the world. With respect to states, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram and Rajasthan have been allocated the month of January for carrying out specific activities for sensitization and promotion of IYM. The states will be conducting millet centric activities including Mahotsav's/ melas and food festivals, training of farmers, awareness campaigns, workshops/ seminars, placement of hoardings and distribution of promotional material at various key locations in the state, etc. Other states that are organizing similar activities in the month of January include Maharashtra, Uttarakhand and Punjab.

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Xeriscaping: The Water Saving Landscaping

Vishal Srivastava et. al.

Xeriscaping is mainly about growing "xerophytes", which are slow growing plants that grow in low water environments. The term xeriscape comes from the Greek word "xeros" meaning "dry" and "Scape" comes from the word "landscape". It is encouraged in areas where there is no readily accessible, abundant or reliable fresh water supply and is gaining acceptance in other areas as access to irrigation water becomes limited. It is an important practice to keep the landscape fresh and green with a variety of beautiful plants, maintained with water-saving practices.

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Fisheries Based Ecotourism in India: Potentials and Challenges

Hari Prasad Mohale et. al.

Trips for recreational fishing make up a sizable portion of the tourism industry in many nations. The need for novel tourism products and the need to identify new revenue streams for fisheries in order to make them more profitable and sustainable can both be addressed by linking fisheries to tourism. This raises the question of whether India may be promoted as a destination for Fisheries-Based Ecotourism (FbE). The prospects for ecotourism in India have been investigated in various ways, but the viability of FbE in particular has not received enough attention. This study examines the idea of FbE in the context of India and considers potential effects on socioeconomic community life as well as the environment based on a survey of the literature and stakeholder interviews.

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Potassium Solubilizing Bacteria: An Eco-Friendly Approach for Sustainable Agriculture

Viabhav Kumar Upadhayay

Potassium (K) is an important nutrient that helps plants maintain their vitality and growth processes. But a huge fraction of K in soil is in fixed form and inadequately available for plants. Therefore, K-based chemical fertilizers provide a sufficient amount of K for plants and have a positive impact on plants in terms of yield. However, on the contrary, the intensive application of chemical-based fertilizers shows negative impacts on the environment. Application of potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) presents an eco-friendly approach to assisting plants in the uptake of the soluble fraction of K. KSB solubilizes the insoluble form of K in soil through the production of organic acids, protons, polysaccharides, etc. The biofertilizers based on KSB can be used for sustainable agriculture. This article illustrates a general introduction of KSB, their K solubilizing mechanism, and their use as biofertilizers as an eco-friendly approach.

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Bonsai: The Art of Nature in Miniature

Vishal Srivastava et. al.

Bonsai is the Japanese art of developing plants in their entirety in small pots or containers, sometimes in combination with rocks of various shapes, in miniature form by gardening enthusiast. Today, this art is widely spread all over the world. Bonsai provide a year-round pleasure that you can't get from growing flowers in your garden. Bonsai also need proper care, such as watering, fertilizing, pinching, and trimming branches with wire. The joy of growing bonsai is unrivalled and its decorative uses both in the garden and in the home make it a beauty art that brings lasting joy.

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Extraction of Cod Liver Oil

Tamil Mani. S. et. al.

Cod liver oil (CLO) is widely used to separate and purify PUFA because it is a rich source of various polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which are both economical and healthy. Cod liver oil contains vitamin A and D in addition to PUFA, and because of this, it is utilised more frequently than any other fish oil. It has numerous health advantages that have improved the way diseases are treated in people. It is frequently utilised as a supplement for newborns as well as in the development of drugs and therapies. However, using cod liver oil excessively can have certain negative consequences on people.

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Performance of Rapeseed Variety TS-67 under Cluster Front Line Demonstration (CFLD) in Namsai District, Arunachal Pradesh

Dr. Madhumita Sonowal Bora

The present study was carried out in rabi season in 2021-22 in 6 villages of Namsai District under CFLD programme. The objectives of CFLD was to demonstrate the improved technologies provided by State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Institutes to improve the production and generate interest to the farmer which is losing due to stagnation of yield of existing variety by executing the Cluster Frontline Demonstrations (CFLDs). The rapeseed variety TS-67 shows better yield as compared to farmer variety (TS-36) in Namsai District, Arunachal Pradesh. From economic point of view the improved technology gave higher gross return, net return and benefit cost ratio than the farmer's practices.

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Milk, Rice and Fish Based Fermented Foods of Odisha

Jyotirmayee Sahoo and Viabhav Kumar Upadhayay

The production of fermented food is an ancient human skill, and people of the local area prepare a wide variety of fermented foods with the help of their ancestral ethnic knowledge. In the past, to increase the shelf life of food products, many food processing and preservation techniques were introduced at the household level, such as drying, germination, and fermentation. Out of these techniques, fermentation is considered the best for the preservation of food. Fermentation is usually accomplished through the use of microorganisms, specifically bacteria and yeast. In Odisha, a wide diversity of fermented foods is a household art where various fermented foods are prepared from milk, rice and fish. This article illustrates important fermented food such as Chhenapoda, Pitha, dry salted hilsa, etc and their method of preparation.

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Current Concept on Bird Flu

Dr. Om Prakash Dinani

Avian influenza (AI), as per World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), is defined as an infection of poultry caused by any influenza A virus of the H5 or H7 subtypes or by any influenza A virus with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) greater than 1.2 (or as an alternative at least 75% mortality) as described below. Avian influenza or bird flu refers to the disease caused by infection with avian (bird) influenza (flu) Type A viruses. These viruses naturally spread among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Bird flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with bird flu viruses have occurred. The first known cases in humans were reported in 1997, when an outbreak of avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 in poultry in Hong Kong led to severe illness in 18 people, one-third of whom died proved its zoonotic potential.

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Surrogate Broodstock Technology

Divyanand R.S. et. al.

Surrogate broodstock technology uses substitute individuals to produce young of other species using PGC and Gonical cells collected from donor fishes and intraperitoneally injected into recipient larvae or adult ones known as surrogate. The viability and density of PGC and Gonical cells are checked for better selection. A novel method for producing more donor fish species by using a recipient one. It speeds up the breeding process and closes the donor's generation gap. A quick and easy way to have more young ones using the surrogate method without causing any generational or genetic issues.

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Problems of Antibiotic and Drug Residue in Aquaculture

Suparna Deb and Sampa Baidya

In aquaculture, antibiotics are utilized to stimulate growth. Diverse antibiotic classes, including aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, macrolides, chloramphenicols, nitrofurans, lincosamides, and polymyxins, are used in aquaculture. The "antibiotic resistance problem" is the term used to describe how antibiotics are being misused and abused, along with the appearance and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and resistance genes. Antimicrobial substances either eliminate bacteria (bactericidal) or stop their growth (bacterio-static).

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TOWS Matrix Analysis: A Strategic Solution to the Sustainability of Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs)

Khushboo Bhati and Chaudhari Anjalikumari S.

In present scenario the sustainability and efficient management of Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs) are the biggest challenge to be answered for the promoting agencies. For that one has to frame strategic planning to pave a way forward for working and decisions of FPCs. TOWS analysis includes creating a list of threats, opportunistic, weaknesses and strengths. It gives clues for examining ways through that company can convert the advantage in to opportunities and there by minimize threats by exploiting strengths and overcoming weaknesses. Accordingly, the strategies need to be developed identically for every FPC. There is wider scope for direct retailing and quality product with brand names. The FPCs not only provide monetary benefits to the member, but also enhance their confidence in farming.

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Linkage and Convergence Based Rice Technology Transfer: The INSPIRE Model of ICAR-NRRI, Cuttack

Sudipta Paul et. al.

The present article discusses a technology transfer model, conceived at the ICAR-NRRI. Cuttack - INSPIRE (INnovative SPread In Rice Ecosystem). The model is based on the philosophy of bringing synergy through partnership and convergence. Farmers field demonstrations, knowledge empowerment, skill building, robust monitoring, distribution of critical inputs, crop cutting experiments, and field days are important components of the model. Presently the model covers nine states and thirty districts of the country. The model has contributed in enhancing acreage under NRRI varieties through the process of diffusion.

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Poultry Nutrition and Feed Technology Under Rural Poultry Farming

Om Prakash Dinani

Poultry plays an important role in the livelihood of rural communities in developing countries. Feed & feed supplements represent the major cost of poultry production, constituting up to 70 percent of the total. Rural poultry (RP) accounts for about 80% of the world's poultry stocks in many developing countries. Rural poultry production constitutes important component of agricultural economy in India. The rural type chicks need balanced feed during the initial 6 weeks of age under nursery rearing/brooding. Economic rural poultry feeding is possible by adopting free range/scavenging feeding, adopting integrated farming system like fish cum duck farming, use of locally available feed resources, use of kitchen waste, use of alternate feed resources, green feeding, termite/snail/earthworm feeding etc.

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Catalytic Degradation of Dyes using Plant- Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs)

Monika Moond et. al.

Development of reliable and eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles is a vital step in the field of nanotechnology. The key mechanism behind the plant-mediated synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a plant-assisted reduction due to phytochemicals. These AgNPs can be characterized using various techniques. The disposal of organic dyes is a crucial problem in textile and paper industries since they are nondegradable. The application of AgNPs in catalytic degradation of dyes is a better alternative option than the common dye removal techniques as it does not produce any harmful by products.

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