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Volume(3) / Issue(9)

Microbes and their Impact on the Pharmaceutical Industry

Nishant Ranjan et. al.

Microorganisms are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of various products such as vaccines, antimicrobial drugs, probiotics, hormones, enzymes and vitamins, other uses include phage therapy. Pharmacists can find antimicrobial drugs that would stop a growing number of communicable diseases by discovering cellular mechanisms. In addition, it guarantees that the pharmacological treatments target opportunistic microorganisms without harming their human hosts.

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Impact of Ferrolysis Induced Soil Transformations on Soil Health

Anshu and Narender K. Sankhyan

Soil is not a static object that can be described once and for all, but a natural entity with a time dimension. Soil genesis study describes the influence of soil forming factors such as climate, parent material, relief, topography and effect of one or more soil forming processes on soil evolution with time under different conditions. Highest rates of soil genesis are found to be associated with more humid climatic conditions and periodic water saturation. Prolonged water saturation under humid climatic conditions lead to the development of soil with change in chemical and morphological properties. Redox processes promote gleying and accumulation of acid organic compounds in these soils. Ferrolysis is described as a dominant process to explain clay disintegration, interlayering of clay minerals in water saturated soils either due to seasonal alteration and prolonged water saturation and is considered as a characteristics profile forming process. Clay disintegration and interlayering of clay minerals along with change in pH and cation exchange capacity of the soil do not promote soil health in a sustainable basis. Remediation of soil undergoing ferrolysisis required for the maintenance of good soil health.

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Silicon Induced Stress Tolerance Mechanism in Crops

Kumar Chiranjeeb et. al.

Crop growth and productivity declines due to various environmental associated stress conditions such as abiotic and biotic stresses. The abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, UV radiation, high temperature, light, heat and cold stress hampers the soil and crop ecology as well as pathogens, disease-pest infestations accounts for biotic stresses for crop, thus deteriorates soil fertility. Silicon application develops the defensive mechanisms on physical, biochemical and molecular level of crop to mitigate stress conditions. Silicon deposition on cuticles of crops forms a hard and impermeable layer which resists the infestation and other invasion pathway for insect-pest which develops physical based mechanism for stress alleviation. Silicon induces the conditions to release certain defensive enzymes and antimicrobial compounds which are helpful in formation of defensive mechanism against stress conditions; also silicon helps the crop to modify crop cellular structures. On molecular level silicon application to crops to release activated genes and proteins those act as a measure against stress situation.

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Production of Graded Wines from Gulkand Using Different Spices

Haripriya Sureshbabu et. al.

Gulkand is a sweet preserve of rose petals from the Indian continent but not only a sweet preserve is also known for its medicinal properties. The aim of this project is to give a detailed study about Gulkand and different spices used in wine production. Using these ingredients in wine making, it is possible to produce a nutritional wine which will be different from other available wines. The National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine provides numerous benefits that can be obtained by consuming Gulkand on a regular basis. On the other hand, spices also contribute nutritional values that help to maintain a flavorful life. Any part of the plants such as dried arilla, bark, buds, flowers, roots, rhizomes can be used as spices. These share some common health benefits such as cardiac health, for eyes, for skin, for digestion and so on. Gulkand can be used to prepare Beverages like wine where all the nutritional benefits are bottled and able to consume readily. Along with Gulkand, to boost nutritional values spices can work as a catalyst. Hence, through this study it is quite evident that use of Gulkand along with spices in wine production could be robust fullness in the lives of humans.

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Cultured Meat: A Paradigm of Innovation

Shumaila Taskeen et. al.

The anticipated population explosion in the future would also put enormous pressure on the food production. The growing demand for meat calls for an ecofriendly and sustainable alternative for the non-vegetarian population. The concept of in-vitro meat has therefore, gained attention of researchers and many stakeholders. Of the many advantages, that invitro meat offers is reduction in advents of meat borne illness and animal cruelty. This article highlights the key points related to in-vitro meat production and its advantages over conventional meat.

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Farmer-Driven Agricultural Education for Modern Farming and Sustainable Agriculture Development

A.K. Singh et. al.

The human resource developed in agriculture education system has been instrumental in agricultural transformation in the country. However, the agricultural education system has not kept pace with the rapid technological development-taking place globally. The future strategy for agriculture is going to be very different in view of depleting land resources, depleting genetic diversity, over exploitation of natural resources, increased population, increased demand for food and other commodities and lesser chance of employment. The question before us is how to improve our agricultural education and quality of graduates. It is here that science of educational technologies comes in picture to analyze the process of education and solve the problems of teaching and learning in agriculture for modern farming. The emergence of virtual classroom, open learning systems and distance education has given a new perspective to teaching and learning process. Scattered efforts are being made to initiate distance education, on-line learning and use of internet for agricultural education, but not much infrastructure and expertise is available within the National Agricultural Research system. Thus, this calls for urgent attention of educators to improve the quality and innovations of agricultural education. This paper aims to discuss about the farmer-driven agricultural education technology for modern farming and sustainable agriculture development.

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Air Pollutants and their Impact on Plants

Ajay Chaurasiya et. al.

In the modern world, more than 300 air polluting substances are emitted into the air which are increasing in number day by day due to the introduction of new manufacturing processes and technologies. The most common pollutants which causes injury in plants are ozone, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, chlorine, peroxy-acetyl nitrate (PAN), and ethylene. The impact of air pollutants on plants depends on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the affected plant, the type of the pollutants. Due to toxic concentration of pollutant in air reductions of growth parameters in plants occur, such as height, diameter, leaf and root biomass, leaf area length and width of stomata, length of the stomatal pore, and stomatal density. These pollutants affect plants even at low concentrations (0.1 to 55 ppm) by causing chronic or acute injury.

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Export Performance of Papaya from India

Dr. Shreeshail Rudrapur

The study was conducted to know the export performance of fresh fruits from India for a period of 15 years (2006-07 to 2020-21). Compound annual growth rate and instability index analysis were used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. The export quantity of fresh papaya showed a negative growth rate of 3.45 percent and was significant at 5 per cent whereas its export value has got a positive growth rate of 7.68 per cent and found to be significant at 1 percent.

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Varietal Wealth of Horticulture in TNAU

C. Ravindran

The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) had its genesis from establishment of an Agricultural School at Saidapet, Madras, Tamil Nadu, as early as 1868 and it was later relocated at Coimbatore. In 1920 it was affiliated to Madras University. TNAU assumed full responsibilities of Agricultural Education and Research and supported the State Agricultural Department by delivering research products. Till 1946, the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore, was the only Institute for Agricultural Education for the whole of South India. In 1958, it was recognized as a Post-graduate Centre leading to Masters and Doctoral degrees. The Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai was established in 1965. These two colleges formed the nucleus of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University while it was established in 1971. The number of varieties released from TNAU in fruits, vegetables, flowers, plantation crops, medicinal and aromatic crops are listed below.

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Organic Farming: Change in Productivity of Farm Products and Soil Health

Sweta Singh et. al.

Food quality and safety are the two important factors that have gained ever-increasing attention in general consumer. Conventionally grown foods have immense adverse health effects due to the presence of higher pesticides, more nitrate, hormones, antibiotic residues and also genetically modified organisms. Moreover, conventionally grown food are less nutritious. The chapter emphasizes that intensive and indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides affect the quality of food grains, vegetables, fruits and other eatables there by affecting human and animal health. It also reviews the importance of organic farming in enhancing food quality and productivity and summarizes the results of impact of organic farming on various crops. Organic farming also protects environment and has great socio-economic impact.

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Metabolites in Medicinal Plants

Urvashi Patil et. al.

The medicinal plants are very important and can be used to treat many human diseases or even disorders. The medicinal plants have many phytochemicals present in them which can help in this. The phytochemicals include carbohydrates, alkaloids, proteins, starch, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, pholobatannins, phenolic compounds and tannins. The work here describes the study of metabolites i. e., presence of phytochemicals in the plants viz., Bougainvillea glabra, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Anacyclus pyrethrum and Plectranthus scutellarioides L. The presence of phytochemicals in these plants indicates they can be used to cure human diseases or disorders. This will be very eco-friendly and economical.

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Crop Paradigm from Old to Gold

Pankaj Kumar et. al.

The priority is to develop a local variety into popular country wise and globally is sustain in adverse environment and should be high in yield and nutrition. There are several achievements from past to recent have been obtained through innovative research. Some of them are like Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Golden rice, QPM, Bt cotton, Bt Soybean, Bt Maize, Bt canola, mutant verities etc. have been known country wise and globally through plant breeding approaches and biotechnological techniques involvement such as somatic hybridization, gene transfer, mutation breeding, gene knockout techniques and genome editing. These innovative methods which have been addressed will be known, to modify the local variety into improved one in past, present and future.

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Human-Wildlife Conflict: Cause and Strategies to Prevent It

Deepak Chand Meena et. al.

The term "human-wildlife conflict" (HWC) refers to interactions between people and animals in which there are unfavorable outcomes-whether genuine or perceived-for either one or both parties when one or both take actions that negatively affect the other. The majority of the population in developing nations like India, on which natural resources are strongly reliant, has long coexisted with forest inhabitants. However, the increasing human reliance on natural resources and the destruction of wildlife habitats have led to a scenario where humans and wildlife are at odds. Different aspects of human-wildlife conflict include crop destruction, cattle theft, human fatalities, and property damage caused by wild animals. A major cause of conflict is the increasing population of the human, urbanization, deforestation etc., and people surrounding the protected followed various strategies like fencing around the agriculture field, guarding, and translocation etc., it is imperative that action plans, that target offsetting the economic loss of local and enhance public participation, are put in place to meet the integrated conservation and development goal in a landscape where human and wildlife can coexist.

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True Potato Seed: An Option for Availability of Good Seed

Dr. Sweta Singh et. al.

Growing potatoes from true potato seeds is fun and you can discover some very good new varieties, but it is not as reliable as growing potatoes from tubers. Potato is a genetically diverse crop and the seedlings do not grow true. That means that every seedling grown from TPS is genetically unique and will produce tubers with different characteristics than the parent. Every potato plant grown from seed is a new variety. There are thousands of potato varieties with different colors and forms found in the Andes, but these types are a challenge to grow in North America because they do not form tubers until very late in the growing season. Andean potatoes are more readily available as TPS than as tubers.

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Trichoderma Spp.: Source of Secondary Metabolites

Ranjana Joshi and Pratima, S. B.

The strains of Trichoderma used as biocontrol agents show different mechanisms of action in their antagonistic interactions with fungal pathogens through direct and indirect effects. Direct effects include nutrient and space competition, volatile and non-volatile antibiotic production, hydrolytic enzyme production and parasitism. Indirect effects include all aspects that promote morphological and biochemical changes in the host plant, such as nutrient availability, stress response induction of resistance to diseases caused by plant pathogens. The secondary metabolites (SMs) are small molecules that are not directly essential for growth yet have important roles in signaling, development and interaction with other organisms. The production of Trichoderma secondary metabolites is strain dependent and varies in relation to the equilibrium between elicited biosynthesis and biotransformation rates.

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CRISPR-CAS9: An Advanced Tool for Genome Editing

Somyashree Mishra et. al.

For ages, gene editing had a need for engineering DNA-cutting enzymes, named as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), which were required for every specific genetic alteration. The arrival of CRISPR-Cas9, a genome-editing tool that can work only with tailored guide RNA molecules that locates its target, transformed the field completely. An entire new age of the genome editing techniques, defined by regularly clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated endonuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas 9), is indeed an absolutely incredible technology developed by "Doudna and Charpentier" contributing to modern life sciences in the past decades, thus can not only bring predictable but inheritable changes too given at particular locations of the provided plant genome. That incorporates deletion then insertion followed by replacement in the base sequence in order to achieve accurate, error-free and specific Advancement of desired plant characters.

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Impact of Integrated Nutrient Management in Enhancing the Growth and Yield of Crops

Karan Verma et. al.

Alleviation of poverty and achievement of zero-hunger target and food security are significant challenges faced by agricultural planners worldwide. Improving many agronomic approaches, which have drastic effects on crop growth and yield, is urgently needed to report this aim. Integrated nutrient management refers to the maintenance of soil fertility and of plant nutrient supply at an optimum level for sustaining the desired productivity through optimization of the benefits from all possible sources of organic, inorganic and biological components in an integrated manner, has a bright solution in this area. Recently, several investigators reported that integrated use of conventional fertilizers with organic manure is becoming a quite promising practice not only for maintaining higher productivity but also for greater stability to crop production and also reduce environmental impacts. Integrated nutrient management is a tool that can offer good options and economic choices to supply plants with a sufficient amount of nutrients in need and can also reduce total costs, its improve to physical, chemical and biological properties of soil hence improve growth and yield of the crops.

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Digitalization: Way to Agricultural Automation

Mandeep Kumar et. al.

As land is limited and the population is growing at an alarming rate, so this situation has put a lot of pressure on agri-food system. Since, traditional methods of farming are inefficient to fulfill the increasing demand; therefore, agricultural automation becomes essential to overcome this challenge. Digital technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), drones, robotics, remote sensing, blockchain technology, internet of things (IoT), etc., are widely used in agriculture and allied sectors for crop and soil health monitoring, aerial imaging, bio-tagging of livestock, etc. Digitalization will act as a transformative wheel for agri-food system, value chains, and for livestock sector as well. Thus, digitalization in agriculture has the potential to revolutionize agricultural automation in the near future.

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A Behavioural Approach to Agricultural Investment Decisions

Rashmi Sinha et. al.

Farming as a business requires constant inflow of investment and the investments in this area is made by both public and private sector. The private sector investment includes investment by organised corporates and households. Hence investment by private sector and individual households play an important role in increasing agricultural production and productivity thereby strengthening farmers? income. Despite continuous initiatives of the Government, the share of Gross Capital Formation in Agriculture in Gross Value Added from Agriculture and Allied sector is declining. This reflects that farmers and private investors are often reluctant to invest in agriculture. There is a greater need to understand the reasons behind low private investment, and address these timely and in effective manner. Behavioural factors could be one of the main factors and considering behavioural factors can lead to more realistic and effective agri-policies.

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Har Medh Par Ped Scheme: A Way for Ecological and Economical Sustainability

R. K. Meena et. al.

Climate change is evidently one of the serious concerns leading to several problems such as global warming, flood, drought, etc. With the adverse effect of changing climate, agriculture also affected adversely results in low productivity of crops and food insecurity among the people. Under this situation, agroforestry could be one option to combat with climate change. Therefore, the scheme of Har Med Par Ped was launched under Sub-Mission of Agroforestry. The scheme promotes the plantation on personal farmlands along with traditional farming system in order to develop climate resilient farming system as well as to get additional benefits from trees.

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A Review on Poultry Industry Strategy Documented on Assam Poultry Development Project (2019-2024)

Ningthoukhongjam Linda et. al.

Poultry is an important part of India's agricultural economy, and it plays a multifaceted role in providing livelihood support to the rural population in particular. Apart from contributing to the national economy in general and the agricultural economy in particular, the poultry sector also provides employment opportunities, asset creation, a coping mechanism in the event of crop failure, social and financial security. Poultry is the most affordable and arguably the best source of animal white meat protein for the general population. Small and marginal farmers with limited resources, as well as landless labourers, rear backyard poultry to supplement family income, which is cared for by their female relatives. As a result, sustainable development of the poultry sector would lead to more inclusive development and women's empowerment.

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A Review on Goatery Industry Strategy Documented on Assam Goat Development Activities (2018-2023)

Ningthoukhongjam Linda et. al.

The climate and food habits of the Assam are ideal for goat rearing. Because approximately 80 % of the state's population is not vegetarian, there is a high demand for meat, particularly chevon meat, which is a delicacy for all segments of the state's population. A successful dairy goat industry necessitates maximum cooperation among goat breeders, milk producers, cheese and other dairy goat product manufacturers, distributors, and retail outlets. To promote it as a niche product alongside the meat market, a coordinated effort from breeding to marketing is required.

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Precision Agriculture: Using technologies to Boost Crop Farming

Subhash and Jyoti Bangre

Precision farming, also known as precision agriculture, is a systematic approach to crop management that generally uses information technology (IT) and satellite-based technology to identify, assess, and manage spatial and temporal variability of agronomic parameters (e.g., soil, pest or disease, fertigation etc.) within a field by applying the appropriate amount of input at the appropriate time to achieve optimum productivity and profitability while reducing environmental impact. Inputs (such as fertilizers, irrigation, and pesticides) are decided to be applied in the right amount, at the right time, and in the right place. This is generally referred to as "Site-specific management strategies" (SSMS).

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Taking Agroecology to Scale: Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNFs)

Mohammad Aashik Qureshi and Tanisha Gangrade

The fact that smallholders which includes marginal and small farmers who have been effective are also the ones carrying the heavier load raises concerns about the sustainability of their means of subsistence, especially given the poor absolute return levels. It is time for policy actions to demonstrate the importance of smallholders' lives. In order to address the agrarian and agricultural aspects of the Indian agricultural crisis, it is imperative to lower costs, lower risks, and boost profits. Through its application by farmers' efforts in Karnataka and the engagement of the state in Andhra Pradesh, Zero Based Natural Farming, which is in sync with the concepts of agroecology as well as other knowledge systems, seems to suggest a way out. This need not interfere with other activities needed to make the lives of smallholder's matter, nor should it interfere with other similar approaches.

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Adoption of Agroforestry Model for Economic and Ecological Viability

Tulika Kumari et. al.

Adoption of agroforestry model ensures economic and ecological benefits by providing better income to the farmers through diversification and reducing the vulnerability against climate related risk. Despite of awareness about the benefits, the adoption level is very low due to several challenges like shortage of quality planting material, cumbersome legislation, and insufficient marketing infrastructure etc. Therefore, the research on agroforestry models suitable for different agro climatic region, increase the supply of quality planting materials through providing the training on nursery raising, dissemination of research results through proper extension services, and the development of marketing infrastructure is much needed action of the present era.

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Occurrence of Pebrine Disease on Silkworm and its Control Strategy

K. Indirakumar and Devi, M

Silkworm Lepidopteran insect is of immense economic importance for the production of silk which is vulnerable to a various microorganisms resulting in crop losses to sericulture industry. It is infected by various disease viz., Pebrine (Fungal disease), Flecherie (Bacterial disease), Grasserie (Viral disease) and Muscardine (fungal disease). Among these, Pebrine is the most important disease of silkworm that is caused by Nosema spp. and is commonly observed in all the seasons but during the rainy and winter season, its infection level is more. It is a spore forming obligate intracellular microsporidia that causes the irresistible pebrine disease in silkworm which are transmitted by either horizontal and vertical or transovarial transmissions.

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Nutritional Benefits from Consuming Fish

Tanuja S. et. al.

Consumption of fish is associated with has immense health benefits in terms of the nutrients it provides. The diverse array of nutrients presents in fish in the form of proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids make it a unique source of animal protein to human beings. The present paper summarizes the nutritional benefits from consuming fish and also throws light on the nutritional composition of important food fishes of Odisha.

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Biopolymer Chitosan in Plant Disease Management

Ashwini E et. al.

Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms or synthesized artificially from biological source materials. They are generally polymers of starch. These are composed of manomeric units and degraded naturally in the environment, without any toxic effect on environment hence they are environment friendly. There are three main classes of biopolymers, according to the composition of monomers used and the structure of biopolymer formed: polynucleotides, polypeptides and polysaccharides. In recent past plant disease management was carried out by using hazardous chemical pesticides. Keeping in view of human health and environment, recently much attention was paying towards use of biodegradable and environment friendly plant disease management. It is interesting to know that biopolymers having antimicrobial properties and it can be utilized in management of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, virus and nematodes. These biopolymers are renewable composed of plant material which can be grown endlessly. Most commonly used polymers are derivatives of polysaccharides (chitosan, cellulose, starch and polyactic acid). The chitosan (CHT) biopolymer is a de-acetylated chitin derivative that exists in the outer shell of shrimp, shellfish, lobster or crabs, as well as fungal cell walls. Because of its biodegradability, environmental non-toxicity, and biocompatibility, it is an ideal resource for sustainable agriculture. This article focuses in detail about role chitosan biopolymer in plant growth promotion and plant disease management.

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Gypsum Technology: A Cost-Effective Strategy to Recoup Alkali Soils on a Sustainable Basis

Marthala Bhuvaneswar Reddy et. al.

In India, nearly 6.73 million ha of land has been classified as salt-affected, with alkali and saline soils accounting for 3.70 and 2.96 million ha, respectively, threatening the farming community's livelihood security. Reclamation of salt-affected soil is a priority in current policies in India in order to meet the demands of a growing population for food, feed, fiber and bioenergy. For reclaiming alkali soils and making them productive, it is necessary to remove or replace exchangeable sodium (Na+) on soil colloids with divalent cation calcium (Ca2+). Among the various strategies tested, gypsum technology proved to be a cost-effective method for reclaiming alkali soils on a long-term basis.

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Biomolecules from Ganoderma Lucidum Against Plant Pathogens

P. Latha et. al.

Ganoderma lucidum is considered as one of the richest sources of natural antibiotics and various species of them inhibit the growth of a wide diversity of micro -organisms. The fruiting bodies of G. lucidum have been regarded as a panacea for all types of diseases, perhaps due to its demonstrated efficacy as a popular remedy to treat a large number of diseases.

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Filters for Micro Irrigation

G. Thiyagarajan et. al.

Filtration is an important operation for the micro irrigation system. Without filtration system, clogging of emitters or drippers will occurs, which will affect the performance of the irrigation system. To avoid or reduce the clogging in the system, four types of filters are used viz., screen, disc, sand and hydro-cyclone filter. The type of filter to be used is selected based on the source of water and quality of irrigation water. Mostly for maintenance purpose screen or disc filters are used.

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Drip Fertigation Equipments

G. Thiyagarajan et. al.

Fertigation means applying fertilizers along with irrigation water. All the three major nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micro nutrients needed for the plants can be given through fertigation. The Fertilizer Use Efficiency increases when the fertilizers are applied through fertigation. In order to carry out the fertigation in a proper and precise manner, the venturi, fertilizer tank and fertilizer injection pump are used. Most of the conventional fertilizers are soluble in water, but to achieve better efficiency water soluble fertilizers are also used in fertigation.

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Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.)- A Natural Boon for Mankind

R. Balakumbahan et. al.

Moringa is one of the traditional vegetable crops of Southern parts of India which possess richness in nutrients and nutraceutical properties. Leaf production of Moringa is gaining importance among the farming community since its international demand is in growing trend. Integrated nutrient management i.e., combined use of inorganic fertilizers along with microbes could be helpful to increase the crop yield. Microorganisms facilitate fixation, solubilization and mobilization of nutrients to crops. Use of microorganisms will also reduce the residual toxicity of inorganic fertilizers in the end produce.

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Coconut-Production of Elite Planting Material

V. Sivakumar et. al.

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial plantation with its economic life span lasting for more than 60 years. Being a highly cross pollinated crop and exhibiting a lot of genetic variations, it is important to ensure that only genetically superior coconut seedlings are planted in the field. The success of a healthy coconut plantation begins with the planting of high-quality seedlings. Production of high-quality planting materials from superior genotypes, involves a series of steps, starting from selection of ideal mother palms, harvesting the seednuts, storing and curing of seednuts, nursery raising and management.

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MAKAPUNO-A Gelatinous Mutant Coconut Variety

V. Sivakumar et. al.

Makapuno is a mutant type of coconut, the endosperm of Makapunois thicker and softer instead of crispy (Ohler, 1999). It is used for making ice cream, confectioneries, candies, sweetmeats and other food products. The embryo of makapuno cannot germinate in situ. It is either seed propagated from the normal nut of makapuno bearing palmsor through embryo culture technique. The Makapuno is highly valued coconut varieties in the South East Asia particularly in Philippines and Thailand because of its rare occurrence. There is a huge commercial potential for Makapuno nuts for new and diversified food and specialty items.

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Current Status of Small Holding Farmers in India

Ishita Mandla and Subhash Sharma

The Indian agriculture is characterized by millions of marginal and small farmers, who are facing difficulties to operate the high risk of farming. The risk is related to weather uncertainties, uneven access to technologies and natural resources, unreliable input supplies, stressed infrastructure in power and irrigation and uncertain marketing arrangements which responsible for less bargaining power in input and output marketing of Indian farmers in present economic scenario. The increase in population, subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings due to breakdown of joint family system encouraging conversion of semi-medium and medium group of farmers into group of small and marginal farmers, which results in un-economic land holdings. In future, Indian agriculture will be dominated by marginal and small holdings, on which application of new agricultural technologies would become more difficult. It is suggested that for ensuring sustainable viability of marginal and small farmers, the creation of job opportunities in rural areas along with suitable policy support for development of livestock sector and other allied activities would be panacea for resource-poor farming community in the future.

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Significance of Chelation in Soil

Kavita Solanki

Healthy soils are rich in organic matter and humus, resulting in natural chelation. Today, natural and synthetic chelates are regularly added to fertilizers. Pollution of soil by toxic metals has become a major environmental problem due to rapid industrial growth, urbanization, modern agricultural strategies, and improper waste disposal practices, toxic metal poisoning of soils has become a major environmental hazard. The application of chelating agents, which is one of the most promising approaches to soil remediation.

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Carbon Sequestration: Achieving Global Mission Through Local Vision

V. Kasthuri Thilagam et. al.

Agriculture, the backbone of our Indian economy, is vulnerable to climate change effects. Ensuring higher food production with sustainability is a challenge during this climate change scenario. In recent times, carbon sequestration gained the great interest of the global scientific community in mitigating climate change effects. Soil and biomass carbon sequestration would combat climate change impacts like land degradation and greenhouse gas emission and need of the hour. This great task can be accomplished only by the support and cooperation of every human being on the earth. The government also can encourage the farmers, industries and local institutions to join hands to achieve this global mission through suitable policy interventions.

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A Review on Piggery Industry Strategy Documented on Assam Pig Development Project (2019-2024)

Ningthoukhongiam Linda and Jyoti Pawan Chutia

The goal of the "Assam Pig Development Project" is to enhance the income of pig rearing farmers, entrepreneurs, NGO's, cooperative societies, and others in order to achieve the Honourable Prime Minister's goal of doubling farmer's income, which could be accomplished only by importing the superior germplasm with high genetic merit and then crossing it with the low productive indigenous pig breeds to produce crossbred pigs that will perform better and yield higher harvest for the pig farmers. To meet the dietary recommended levels of livestock products for a population of 1.7 billion people, the livestock sector should produce 186.2 million tonnes of milk, 18.7 million tonnes of meat, and 306 billion eggs per year by 2050, as per Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) which means that current production levels of milk, meat, and eggs would have to be increased by 1.5, 3, and 4.7 times, respectively. In order to fulfil such huge demand rather than increasing the number of animals, improving genetics through a breed improvement programme may be a better strategy for meeting the required demand for animal protein.

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