Send Message

Home / Current Articles

Volume(4) / Issue(9)

Health, Hygiene and Sanitation of Rural Women: Reviews

Wandahun Lynshiang and Dr. Bineeta Satpathy

Health, hygiene and sanitation are critical parts of overall well-being, especially for rural women, who frequently face Promoting health among rural women entails providing access to appropriate healthcare services, as well as education and awareness about hygiene and sanitation. Rural women frequently confront particular problems in terms of healthcare access, resources and awareness when compared to urban women. Addressing rural women's health, hygiene, and sanitation requirements necessitates a different approach that involves strengthening healthcare infrastructure, encouraging hygienic practices, assuring access to sanitation facilities and addressing gender imbalances. Geographic remoteness, inadequate healthcare services, cultural traditions and financial inequities all have an impact on their health. This review highlights the critical importance of addressing health, hygiene, and sanitation issues in rural women's lives. It highlights the need for wideranging approaches that encompass infrastructure development, education and community engagement to enhance the well-being and dignity of rural women worldwide.

Read More

Leafcutter Bees: Their Nesting Behaviour and Role in Pollination

Monjul Hazarika and Dr. Utpal Sarma

Leafcutter bees are members of the Megachilidae family of unique bees, which are not like other bees in the sense that they do not dwell in big colonies. Instead, these bees build a single nest using materials such as mud, leaves, and other plant substances. However, they are highly helpful in pollinating a variety of wild plants as well as some crops that are commercially valuable. Understanding how leafcutter bees (Megachile rotundata) use plant material to build nests and how they might aid in crop pollination is the primary focus of this article.

Read More

Community Aquaculture: Potential and Constraints

Tanuja S. and P. R. Sahoo

Community involvement plays a significant role in the development of family income and nutrition through embracing various agriculture and allied activities at village level. In the present time and scenario many such communities are coming forward and adopting fish culture in village community ponds on lease basis. The potential of community ponds is huge when managed scientifically through group approach. There also exist constraints in the form of social barrier and transfer of scientific knowledge to the community.

Read More

Role of Plant Growth Regulators on Major Vegetables Crop Production

Sandeep Indurthi et al.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are essential compounds in the cultivation of vegetable crops, influencing growth and development processes. This review outlines the roles of plant growth hormones (auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene & abscisic acid), in optimizing plant height, flowering, fruiting, and stress responses. PGRs enhance seed germination, root and shoot growth, and nutrient uptake. They aid in managing environmental stresses and synchronizing flowering, leading to improved yield and quality. Careful application is crucial to avoid undesirable effects. Understanding PGR interactions with different vegetable species is vital for tailored use. PGRs offer a promising avenue to enhance sustainable vegetable production, ensuring food security and quality.

Read More

Gene Mediated by Parthenocarpy on Fruits and Vegetable Crops

Sandeep Indurthi et al.

Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits without fertilization, has gained attention for producing appealing crops. This can occur naturally or via genetic manipulation, such as DefH9-iaaM gene from bacteria. The DefH9-iaaM gene encodes a modified enzyme involved in auxin synthesis, a critical plant hormone. Through its expression, auxin production is precisely regulated, enabling fruit development without the requirement for fertilization. This genetic approach has been successfully applied to fruits (grapes, strawberry, raspberry) and vegetable crops (tomato, brinjal, cucumber) resulting in the fruits production with no seeds. However, adoption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a subject of ongoing debate and regulatory scrutiny. This abstract emphasizes the DefH9-iaaM gene's role in parthenocarpy, addressing its importance for sustainable fruit and vegetable production.

Read More

Vertical Gardening and its Benefits

Vivek Bhanwala and Panchal Sangmesh

Vertical gardening in now emerging as a key approach towards spatial management within cities by many ways. The choice of plants along with different growing medium plays a key role in monitoring vertical gardening suitability. With application of latest technologies such as green walls can be reviewed. Urban living would be supported by vertical gardens by having a positive social, ecological and economic impact.

Read More

Indian Traditional Foods: Millets

Srishty Chouhan et al.

One of the earliest foods consumed by humans is millets, which may have been the first cereal grain employed in domestic cooking. Small-seeded millets are resilient, rain-fed crops that thrive in dry regions and grow well in conditions of low soil fertility and moisture. Millets are distinctive in part because of their brief growing season. They can grow from seeds planted to fully grown, harvestable plants in as little as 65 days. This is significant where there are plenty of people. Whole millets can be kept for two or more years when properly stored. They are nutri-cereals which are well known for being exceptionally nutrient-dense. This article discusses the types of millets and its potential health benefits.

Read More

Recent Advance in Fungal Diseases Detection, Diagnosis and Management

Vijay Kumar et al.

Plant diseases were cause by various phyto-pathogens like virus, bacteria, phyto-plasmas and fungi. The plants diseases are recorded to be caused by fungi in higher in percentage. Conventional the fungal plant diseases were detected and diagnosed by the morphological characters of the fungal organisms like asexual and sexual spores. But with advancement various technologies are used for detected and diagnosed like PCR, SNPs, Multiplex PCR, PCR-ELISA, Real Time PCR, RP PCR, RFLP, and Microsatellites. Modern technologies are used for management of Plant Tissue culture and genetic engineering.

Read More

Biofertilizer- A Resource for Sustainable Plant Nutrition

Mrs. Pinki Seth et al.

After green revolution the yield has been increased to satisfy today's increasing population. A good numbers of Hybrid and HYVs developed during green revolution has high potential to increase productivity but on the other hand these varieties need more chemical fertilizers for their performance. On application of chemical fertilizers soil health is degrading day by day which need to be replenished by means of integrated way or organic way. Biofertilizer is an important component of both organic and integrated way of nutrient management and have no adverse effect on plants as well as soil. Though most of our agricultural activities are dependent on monsoon, the use of a good biofertilizer can yield a better crop to the farmers and increase the fertility of the soil.

Read More

Scope of Ethnoveterinary Approaches in Animal Sciences

Prasana Kumar Rath et al.

The importance of using ethnoveterinary knowledge to treat various animal ailments is highlighted from the ancient times. Communities all throughout the world have created and passed down useful treatments and management techniques for illnesses affecting livestock and companion animals by drawing on traditional knowledge and local ecological understanding. By appreciating the value of ethno veterinary techniques, stakeholders in animal health might work together to develop more thorough and culturally sensitive approaches to managing animal disease. These collaborative initiatives would integrate traditional knowledge with modern scientific discoveries. Present study will be helpful in refreshing the knowledge of field veterinarians and para-veterinarians regarding various ethno-veterinary approaches and their useful ness in animal diseases.

Read More

Cordyceps Mushroom: An Overview

Shambhavi Tiwari et al.

Cordyceps spp., an entomopathogenic fungus, has been found to have many pharmacological and therapeutic implications, particularly in terms of human health, making it a viable candidate for ethnopharmacological application. A unique bio-metabolite termed Cordycepin, which has extremely significant anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, is the main component of the extract made from this fungus. The research will undoubtedly prompt the scientific community to focus on ways to increase Cordycepin's bioactivity and manufacturing for application in the pharmaceutical and medical industries.

Read More

Animal and Plant based Milk

Srashti Singh and Jadhav Balaji

Animal produced milk has long been consumed by humans. A common food in many cultures, milk provides essential nutrients and has many culinary uses. In depth analysis of several milk verities with various fat concentrations, milk fortified with vitamins A, D or minerals, milk with added phytosterols, and flavor added milk is provided in this extensive article. Generally, there are four types of milk available in the dairy industry: whole milk, reduced fat milk, low fat milk, and fat free milk, sometimes referred to as skim milk. Nine necessary components along with protein are present in each of this varieties of milk.

Read More

Optimizing Resources Using Sen's Multi- Objective Programming (MOP) Model for Potato Growers of Nalanda District, Bihar

Suman Kumari and Mukesh Maurya

The risks involved in agriculture urges the need for insulating the farm profits through income optimization management. The study has attempted an evolving suitable strategy for increasing farm income and employment through vegetable crops with less use of irrigation water in Nalanda district of Bihar. The estimates of MOP have been found as a better solution over the individual optimization but as a compromised one. The optimal cropping plan was also found superior over the existing cropping plan for increasing income and employment with lesser irrigation. An appropriate resource use planning is required for the development of farming sector. Increasing income, employment with lesser use of irrigation, fertilizer etc. In the present study, an optimal cropping plan was proposed for Potato growers of Nalanda district of Bihar for increasing income, employment with lesser use of fertilizer.

Read More

Training Needs of Potato Growers in Nalanda District of Bihar

Suman Kumari and Mukesh Maurya

The current study is to estimate the constraints status of potato cultivation in Nalanda district of Bihar. a study of the difficulties faced by farmers in the Bihar district of Nalanda was conducted. According to the study, the biggest challenges farmers face in growing potatoes include the farmers in production of Potato are High Prevalence of Pest and Disease (82.33%) was thought to be the biggest issue facing potato growers, a Laboure shortage, unpredictable weather, a lack of knowledge and better technology, a lack of credit, poor soil fertility, a delay in crop loan approval, high interest rates on loans, high input costs, inadequate irrigation facilities and Laboure scarcity) In order to move away from subsistence farming, it is important to focus on boosting and stabilizing vegetable sales revenue (potato).

Read More

Biology of Mulberry Silkworm

Vasanth V et al.

Mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. is a monophagous insect that feeds exclusively on the mulberry, Morus alba L. foliage for its nutrition and produces the natural proteinaceous silk. The average incubation period was 8.67?1.03 days whereas, the hatching percentage was 95.89?2.83 per cent. Larva were found to moult four times and passed through five larval instars. Pupa appeared shinning yellow brown in colour which later on became dark brown in colour. The sex ratio was 1: 1.3 (Male: Female). The life span of female found to be relatively more than male moth.

Read More

Prospects and Challenges for Organic Production of Crops

Goskula Kiran et al.

In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on organic farming due to its potential to address agricultural and environmental issues. Organic farming involves utilizing natural methods like compost, cover crops, and beneficial insects to enhance soil quality, manage pests, and promote environmental well-being. Unlike synthetic chemicals, organic farming aims to maintain soil, water, and air cleanliness. This summary provides insights into organic farming's definition, significance, benefits, and challenges, soil quality.

Read More

Trans Fat: A Step Closer to Death

Jyoti et al.

The edible oil industry prefers trans fats as they provide oxidative stability, firmness and plasticity to oil. Studies have shown that trans fats in food have a negative impact on human health and nutrition. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness about the positive and negative effects of various TFA.

Read More

PUSA Decomposer: Solving Farming's Burning Issue

Manish Kumar Maurya et al.

The burning of paddy straw in northern India exacerbates air pollution due to difficulties in waste management. On-site burning damages soil, releasing both greenhouse gases and harmful substances. The burning process depletes vital nutrients and releases gases like CO2, CO, CH4, and N2O. Additionally, airborne particles further deteriorate air quality, posing health risks. To tackle this, preserving crop residues improves soil quality, reduces emissions, and has positive ecological and economic impacts. The 'Pusa decomposer' solution provides 20 to 25 days for enzymatic break down straw, facilitating the conversion of waste to compost. This Environmentally friendly method effectively tackles the problem.

Read More

Consequences of Pharmaceutical Pollution in Aquatic Environment

Akila A et al.

In recent years, pharmaceutical pollution has become a growing concern that affects our environment, particularly our aquatic ecosystems. Pharmaceuticals can enter the environment through various routes, including human and animal excretion, manufacturing processes, and improper disposal. In the aquatic environment, pharmaceuticals can have a wide range of negative impacts on aquatic organisms and their habitats. This article will explore the consequences of pharmaceutical pollution in the aquatic environment.

Read More

Aeroponics: Application in General Crops

Vasanth V et al.

Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without use of soil or an aggregate media. The word aeroponic is derived from the Latin word 'aero' (air) and 'ponic' means labour (work). This is an alternative method of soil-less culture in growth controlled environments. In modern horticulture, different soil-less production techniques such as aeroponics and Nutrient Film Techniques have been developed. Earlier works has shown good results with NFT for potato tuber production. However, tuber initiation was poorer in nutrient solution without solid media than in porous media (e.g. perlite or vermiculite). Until 10 year ago, the use of these technologies was limited almost everywhere in the world and only some countries such as China or Korea were using them for the commercial production of potato quality seeds. The aeroponic culture technique is an optional device of soil-less culture in growth-controlled environments such as greenhouses. This method consists of enclosing the root system in a dark chamber and supplying a nutrient solution of mist device. This was widely used in horticultural species including tomato, lettuce, cucumber and ornamental plants such as chrysanthemum or poinsettia. Aeroponic systems for seed production have been established following increased demand for more efficient high quality seed production methods. Another remarkable advantage of the aeroponics is the minimal contact between the support structure and plant, due to which the unconstrained growth of the plant is possible. The aeroponics systems are widely used for NASA space research programs.

Read More

Formalin: A Toxic Fish Preservative

Domendra Dhruve et al.

Formalin, a solution of formaldehyde gas dissolved in water, has long been utilized as a potent preservative in various industries, notably in the preservation of fish and other seafood. This article examines the properties, applications, and inherent risks associated with the use of formalin as a fish preservative. The preservation of fish is crucial to maintain their freshness, appearance, and nutritional value, particularly in regions with limited access to refrigeration. Formalin's antimicrobial properties and ability to prevent decay make it an attractive option for extending the shelf life of fish products. Its efficacy in inhibiting the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms has contributed to its popularity in the fishing and aquaculture industries. However, formalin's use as a fish preservative raises significant concerns due to its inherent toxicity. Formaldehyde, the active component of formalin, is a potent irritant and carcinogen. Residual formaldehyde in fish products intended for human consumption can pose serious health risks, including allergic reactions, respiratory issues, and even cancer over prolonged exposure.

Read More

Ecological Restoration of Seaweed Techniques and their Challenges

Jeevitha J et al.

An important area of study that has gained more interest recently is the ecological restoration of seaweed. Seaweeds are macroalgae, play a crucial role in marine ecosystems because it provides food and habitat for a variety of marine creatures. The populations of seaweed have been severely impacted by overfishing, pollution, and climate change, which has resulted in a loss of biodiversity and the health of the environment. Seaweed populations can be restored by ecological restoration, which includes the use of artificial structures and transplanting methods. An overview of the state of seaweed restoration efforts is given in this article, along with information on the methods employed, the difficulties encountered, and any prospective advantages for marine ecosystems.

Read More

Gladiolus: Deficiency, Toxicity Symptoms and their Management

Anushruti et al.

Gladiolus is one among the most commonly cultivated, economically significant, and typical blooming plants in the entire globe. A large variety of ornamental crops are capable of being grown in the country due to its favourable agroclimatic conditions, which can boost growers' economic standing. Gladiolus is not benefited from high fertilizer treatment, but it requires constant nutrient supply for excellent development. The different issues of nutritional insufficiency, toxicity, and its management in gladiolus are covered in this article.

Read More

Role of Beneficial Microorganisms in Soil Quality and Plant Health

Rachna and Ankit

There is diverse array of beneficial microorganisms present in the soil, including bacteria, fungi and archaea. Beneficial microorganisms in the soil are crucial players in enhancing soil quality and promoting plant health. They contribute to nutrient cycling, organic matter decomposition and disease suppression, thereby creating a more fertile and resilient soil environment. In addition to their direct effects on soil, beneficial microorganisms influence plant health by stimulating the plant's defence mechanisms. Sustainable farming techniques that promote biodiversity and avoid excessive use of chemical inputs are found to be instrumental in maintaining a healthy microbial community in the soil.

Read More

Revolutionizing Indian Agriculture through Value Chain Extension

Biswajit Mallick et al.

In recent years, the agricultural production sector has experienced a significant and fundamental transformation due to the influence of technological progress and innovative approaches. One such strategy that has emerged as a game-changer is Value Chain Extension. This paradigm shift in agricultural practices goes beyond traditional methods, empowering farmers, stakeholders, and entire communities to harness the full potential of their resources and expertise. Value Chain Extension embodies a holistic approach that encompasses every step of the agricultural process, from production to consumption. It integrates various elements such as technology adoption, knowledge dissemination, market access, and capacity building, creating a network of interconnected stakeholders collaborating for mutual growth. This approach acts as a catalyst for increased productivity, sustainability, and economic resilience. This article covers important aspects of value chain extension towards improving Indian agriculture.

Read More

Study of Pancreatitis: A Life-Threatening Disease

Dr. Rashmi Singh

Pancreatitis is a matter of considerable public health importance on a global scale, and its consequences in the context of India are no exception. Pancreatitis, a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, has been documented to demonstrate a substantial rise in worldwide prevalence, illustrating an exponential development trend. The primary objective of this research study is to give a comprehensive analysis of pancreatitis. This study encompasses several aspects such as the epidemiology, etiology, causes, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and preventions associated with pancreatitis.

Read More

Clean and Hygienic Milk Production

Maleeha Abdul Waikar and Renuka Sunil Mahajan

The primary output of a dairy business is milk, which is primarily produced as food for human use. Therefore, a dairy farmer must strive to increase the amount of milk produced by his or her dairy herd. In order for the milk to be fit for human consumption, the farmer must also make sure that it is produced in a clean and hygienic environment. From the perspective of public health, milk is an excellent medium for the development of bacteria and other microorganisms. As a result, milk that has been contaminated during production, handling, or marketing can readily offer a risk of disease to the general public.

Read More

Innovative CMI Module for Doubling the Farmers' Income: Success Story

Y. D. Pawar et al.

Currently, fragmentation of agricultural land is major concern in India and it plays major role in degradation of agricultural productivity and profit. Sole cropping of muskmelon is common practice in Banaskantha district during summer and fluctuation in market price is the major issue. To tackle this issue, intercropping could be an option of assured income and also it increases productivity of crops in per unit area and per unit time. Therefore, Scientist of KVK, Banaskantha-I developed innovative CMI module (Chilli + muskmelon intercropping) in 2:1 ratio and demonstrated on field of Shri. Kanvarji Vadhaniya village: Ranpur from Deesa block of Banskantha district during summer through on farm testing (OFT). He received muskmelon fruit yield of 290.28 q/ha and green chilli yield of 248.58 q/ha. In term of economics, CMI module giving net return of Rs. 7,87,239 per hectare whereas, sole crop of muskmelon gave Rs. 2,77,403 per hectare i.e. traditional practices. Additionally, saving of cost on field preparation, labour, mulching, inputs like fertilizers, plant protection measures of chilli etc. and also helped to mitigate the high temperature stress i.e. by controlling flower dropping.

Read More

Bioluminescent Mushrooms: A Beacon of Light in Meghalaya's Darkness

Lipa Deb et al.

Bioluminescence is the ability of living organisms such as animals, plants, fungi, bacteria etc to emit light. Bioluminescent mushroom are the fungal organisms that emit continuous, greenish light of wavelength 520-530 nm, that make them visible in the dark environments. However, emission of light is continuous from the living cells but no correlation of fungal bioluminescence and cell structure has been found. Recently, a novel strain of bioluminescent mushroom Roridomyces phyllostachydis has been discovered from the jungles of Meghalaya, North east India.

Read More

Membrane Technology: Use in Dairy Industry

Maleeha Abdul Waikar and Bushra Abdul Waikar

Anisotropic membranes constructed of cellulose acetate that can be used for seawater desalination were first developed in the late 1960s, marking the beginning of this membrane technology. Milk is regarded as the greatest, optimal, and complete food and is a crucial component of the human diet, particularly for vegetarians. Due to its nature, milk is a perfect liquid for membrane filtration. The membranes improve the finished product's smoothness and shelf life by removing undesirable elements like germs, medicines, or sediments that have a detrimental impact on product quality.

Read More

Environmental Effects on Water Pollution

Manjunatha M. K. et al.

Water pollution, a critical environmental concern, profoundly impacts ecosystems and human well-being. This article offers a concise overview of its ecological repercussions. It investigates pollutants like industrial waste, agricultural runoff, and untreated sewage, tainting water bodies and imperiling aquatic life and human health. Biodiversity is affected, causing species loss, food chain disruption, and habitat degradation. Furthermore, it highlights implications for people, like tainted drinking water sources and waterborne diseases. Additionally, it explores wider effects such as ecosystem deterioration, disruption of natural processes, and climate change contribution. The piece underscores adopting preventative measures and effective water management strategies to alleviate and tackle water pollution, promoting informed choices and united efforts for water resource protection and renewal, ensuring a healthier, sustainable future.

Read More

Fish Production for Sustainable Development in India: Balancing Growth and Conservation

Harish Kumar H R and Jamakhandi B R

The Indian fisheries sector stands as a crucial pillar of the economy, encompassing marine and inland resources. It's a linchpin of food security, offering vital protein to a large populace. This sector also drives employment, especially in coastal and rural regions, where fishing is a primary livelihood. Empowering marginalized groups, it fuels rural development. India's fish industry melds traditional and modern practices; age-old methods coexist with sustainable aquaculture. The government recognizes its significance, implementing policies for resource management, infrastructure betterment, tech adoption, and market connections. These endeavors bolster production, uplift fisher communities, and propel economic growth.

Read More

Major Threats to Marine Ecosystem- A Global Issue

Tandel Janshi et al.

Due to human activities exerting more pressure on the ocean environment, it poses a significant danger to the long-term survival of marine species and ecosystems, resulting in a decline in marine biodiversity. The world's marine ecosystems face numerous significant threats that jeopardize their health and stability. Among these threats, climate change, overfishing, and pollution emerge as primary concerns. Climate change contributes to rising sea temperatures, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise, leading to detrimental impacts on marine habitats and biodiversity. Overfishing disrupts the delicate balance of marine food chains, depleting fish stocks and undermining the overall health of aquatic ecosystems. Pollution, specifically plastic pollution, carbon pollution, and oil spills, further exacerbate the degradation of marine environments, causing harm to marine organisms and their habitats. This article provides an overview of these major threats and highlights the urgent need for collective action to conserve and protect our marine ecosystems for future generations.

Read More

Understanding Water Footprint: Assessing the Impact of Human Activities on Water Resources

Dr. Iqra Arif and Brindha S.

As freshwater scarcity intensifies globally, comprehending the "water footprint" concept becomes imperative. This article elucidates the water footprint's essence - measuring direct and indirect freshwater usage for sustenance or production. Blue, green, and grey water footprints are explained, highlighting their roles in water consumption and pollution. Significance arises in combating scarcity through pinpointing high-stress regions, encouraging sustainable consumption, and understanding virtual water trade. Mitigating water footprints involves efficient consumption, sustainable agriculture, industrial enhancements, and policy interventions. Ultimately, embracing sustainable practices can steer us toward water security, preserving this vital resource for future generations amidst escalating global water challenges.

Read More

Application of Protease in Poultry Feed to Enhance Nutritional Efficiency

Meena Sindhu et al.

Protease is one of most important enzymes having wide application in industries. It is used for hydrolysis of proteins. Among all enzymes used, proteases represent 60% of the enzyme market. Protease can be produced from plants, animal and microorganisms, but 66% of the proteases are derived from the microbial sources. Microbes are easy to cultivate, so can be used for enzyme production in short span of time. Microorganisms act as an important source of enzymes because of their vast distribution, high reproduction, and potential to be genetically altered for higher productivity.

Read More

Microfluidic Devices and its Biomedical Application

Dr Brindha S and Dr Iqra Arif

Microfluidics is the study and technology of manipulating fluids on a microscale, employing tiny channels and chambers to control the flow of minute liquid or gas amounts. These systems, often referred to as lab-on-chip or micro-total analysis systems, offer benefits such as high throughput, precise control, and efficient resource usage. They enable parallel processing, automation, and integration of tasks, transforming various scientific processes like sample preparation, molecular analysis, and detection. Microfluidics derives from microanalytical methods, molecular biology, biodefense, and microelectronics, revolutionizing research through its advantages in time, cost, resource efficiency, and precise control. This technology holds significant potential in scientific and industrial realms due to its unique characteristics and capabilities.

Read More

Types of Food Packaging Materials

Ananya Raj et al.

Food can be preserved, protected, merchandised, marketed, and distributed using packaging materials (Raheem, 2013). Food products need to be preserved and protected from a variety of external elements that might harm their quality and safety. This article seeks to give a general overview of food packaging materials, like paper and paper types, different types of plastics, glass, and metals. The basic characteristics, and functions of food packaging materials have been discussed in this article and how they affect food sustainability and preservation.

Read More

Fortification of FYM and Compost with Zinc and Iron and its Applications

Sharanabasava et al.

Soil degradation, environmental pollutions and micronutrients deficiency in Indian soil is an alarmingly increasing global issue. Due to use of excess NPK fertilizers without addition of micronutrients, intensive cultivation with high yielding varieties, limited use of organic matter and restricted recycling of crop residues. In order to overcome these the adoption of new technology called fortification, which is adding micronutrients (zinc and iron) to organic manures (FYM and Compost) to prevent nutritional deficiencies by forming chelation. Fortification makes organic manures more nutritious and helps in uptake of micronutrients from soil and enhancing movement and bioavailability in the edible parts of a plant. Organic amendments contain organic compounds which are highly capable of chelating iron, zinc and have the ability to increase its solubility and mobility of nutrients to the roots. Fortified organic manures with micronutrients not only enhances the rate of decomposition but also improves the nutrient status and also save the cost on fertilizer.

Read More

Beyond Conventional Agriculture: Exploring Organic, Biodynamic, and Natural Farming

D.V.S. Akshay et al.

Organic, biodynamic, and natural farming are three notable alternatives to conventional agriculture: organic, biodiversity, and biodynamic farming. These alternatives are based on a combination of esoteric knowledge and mystical beliefs. In this article, we delve into the differences, benefits, and potential challenges of these three alternatives, exploring their differences, advantages, and challenges. As consumers and farmers alike continue to seek out alternatives that align with their values, understanding the nuances of these farming methods can empower informed choices that contribute to a more sustainable food system.

Read More

Nutraceuticals in Vegetable Oils

Jyoti et al.

Nutraceuticals are in the limelight due to their ability to aid in disease prevention in addition to nutrition. Vegetable oils are a good source of nutraceuticals. The major component of vegetable oils is essential fatty acids while the minor component includes tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, lignans, etc. which provide health benefits. This article mainly emphasizes the importance of vegetable oils.

Read More

Unleashing the Potential of Potato Biotechnology: Innovations and Applications

Nisha A. Nadoda et al.

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a vital food crop known for its high yield and nutritional value. Biotechnology plays a significant role in potato improvement through tissue culture techniques, such as meristem culture, embryo culture, somatic hybridization, and micro propagation, facilitating the production of disease-free planting material and trait transfer. Genetic engineering allows for the introduction of pest and disease resistance genes, contributing to increased crop productivity and reduced pesticide use. Additionally, molecular marker systems aid in efficient selection of desirable traits. These biotechnological advancements hold great promise for enhancing potato production, disease resistance, and nutritional quality, positively impacting global food security and agricultural sustainability.

Read More

Natural Farming in India: Concept and Current Scenario

Subhankar Biswas and Rishita Pakhira

Working with nature rather than against it is emphasized in the idea of natural farming. It encourages the use of natural predators, compost, animal dung, and other locally accessible organic resources to preserve soil fertility, manage pests, and increase the production of crops. Natural farming has become more popular around the globe as a result of its several environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Natural farming lowers soil and water pollution, preserves biodiversity, and reduces the effects of climate change by minimizing the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. In recent years, several countries, including India, have recognized the potential of natural farming and have taken steps to promote its adoption. While natural farming presents significant advantages, challenges remain in its widespread implementation. Limited awareness and knowledge among farmers, lack of access to organic inputs, and the need for supportive policies and infrastructure are among the obstacles that need to be addressed.

Read More

From Silk to Solution: Understanding the Interactions between Insectivorous Spiders, Agricultural Production and Crop Pests

Vaishnudebi Dutta

The intricate web of interactions between crops and pests is crucially dependent on insectivorous spiders. Insect pests that may seriously harm crops can be preyed upon by these intriguing arachnids, who operate as natural predators. Therefore, insectivorous spiders play an active role in the search and consumption of pests including aphids, caterpillars, and beetles, which helps keep the environment in agricultural areas healthy. By reducing the need for synthetic pesticides, they also support organic agricultural methods. Additionally, by lowering pest populations, minimising agricultural damage, and enhancing production, spiders' eating habits might indirectly benefit crop biomass. As a result, intricate interactions between insectivorous spiders, crops, and pests result in a more resilient and healthier agricultural system.

Read More

Present Scenario, Initial Planning and Opportunities in High Density Apple Farming

T. S. Bisht et al.

For apple cultivation, dwarfing rootstocks are the pointers to alter the size of the trees, spacing and preliminary production. Without disturbing the quality of the fruit, the concept of high density planting (HDP) has increased the productivity of many fruit crops, majorly Apple. The preliminary yields of fruits may be obtained with the implementation of high density orchard planting. Even though the investment for high density orchard planting is bit high compared to conventional orchard development, the returns obtained are enormously high. This technique has the record of A Grade fruits with respect to quality as well as price. Thus, high density planting is an effective approach to improve the production, productivity and quality of the fruits.The ultimate change in apple production can only be possible with the change in the production pattern and techniques by using the latest and modern system of high density plantation with quality planting material and the strong lasting support systems.

Read More

Unveiling the Global Challenge of Human- Wildlife Conflict: Impacts and Perspectives

Ghazanfer Abbas et al.

The issue of Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is rapidly evolving into a critical menace endangering the existence of numerous endangered species across the globe. Given the ongoing trajectory of human population expansion, escalating resource requirements, and the intensifying competition for land access, it becomes evident that the elimination of human-wildlife conflicts is an impractical prospect in the foreseeable future. This conflict arises from the competition for resources, shared habitats, and behaviors of wildlife that impact human safety, livelihoods, and well-being. Such conflicts have global significance, with profound ecological, economic, and societal implications. They have contributed to species endangerment, alterations in ecosystem dynamics, and substantial losses of human lives, agricultural yields, livestock and property. The understanding and management of human-wildlife conflict remain pivotal for species conservation, ecosystem restoration, and addressing the intricate web of interactions within and among human communities.

Read More

Biological Insect Pest Management: A Comprehensive Approach for Sustainable Agriculture

Archana Upadhyay and Jagrity Singh

Insect pests pose significant threats to global agriculture, leading to massive yield losses and economic damages. Conventional chemical pesticides have been widely used to control these pests; however, their adverse effects on the environment and human health have raised concerns. As a result, the adoption of biological insect pest management practices has gained momentum in recent years. This comprehensive article delves into the various components of biological insect pest management, focusing on the use of natural enemies, plant resistance, cultural practices, and biotechnological tools. The integration of these strategies offers a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to pest management while ensuring food security and safeguarding the environment.

Read More

Biological Disease Management: Harnessing Nature's Defenses for Sustainable Agriculture

Abhinav Yadav et al.

Disease outbreaks pose significant threats to global agriculture, leading to substantial yield losses and economic damages. Traditional disease management approaches, such as chemical pesticides and fungicides, have proven effective but come with various environmental and health concerns. Biological disease management, on the other hand, offers an eco-friendly and sustainable solution by utilizing natural mechanisms and beneficial organisms to control plant diseases. This comprehensive review explores the various components of biological disease management, including the use of biocontrol agents, induced plant resistance, biological fungicides, and biotechnological tools. The integration of these strategies provides a multifaceted approach to disease management, ensuring crop health, environmental protection, and long-term agricultural sustainability.

Read More

Milky Mushrooms: An Edible Mushroom for Improving the Human Health

Vivek Kumar et al.

Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) is the become third commercially grown mushroom in India after Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. This mushroom is fast reputation due to its attractive robust, sustainable yield, delicious taste, unique texture and cholesterol free foods with certain important medicinal properties including their antiviral effect. Mushroom are very good source of protein, vitamins and minerals with attracting flavor and it is cholesterol free foods. Milky mushroom is also an excellent source of thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, biotin, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid. The locally available substrates for its cultivation, the paddy straw substrates and wheat straw substrate are very suitable for the milky mushroom cultivation. The higher yield of milky mushroom depends upon proper maintenance of pure culture as well as purity and quality of the spawn used. Sometimes, there is complete crop failure depending upon the stage of infection, superiority of compost and environmental conditions. The methodical characterization of fungal communities in casing soil, a functional analysis is needed to highlight potentials and applications.

Read More

Synthetic Metabolic Engineering in Plants: Unleashing the Potential of Genetic Manipulation and Pathway Optimization

Hemanth S. et al.

In an era defined by escalating global demands for sustenance, energy, and renewable resources, the imperative to reimagine agricultural systems for enhanced productivity, sustainability and resilience is paramount. Modern biotechnological methodologies, including metabolic engineering and synthetic biology, present innovative avenues to fortify crops with superior traits. Metabolic engineering entails the fine-tuning or introduction of genes or gene networks to bolster the production of specific compounds within living organisms. In parallel, synthetic biology orchestrates the creation of novel biological pathways for synthesizing unprecedented compounds. The interplay between these fields is manifest in "synthetic metabolic engineering" (SME), a combined technique that harnesses genetic manipulation and intricate biochemical pathways to design crops with augmented attributes, enriched nutritional profiles, and heightened endurance against environmental adversities.

Read More

The Role of Insects in Nutrient Cycling: Unsung Heroes of Ecosystem Health

G.S. Uma et al.

Insects play a vital role in nutrient cycling, the process by which nutrients are transferred from living organisms to the environment and then back to living organisms. They do this by consuming plants and animals and breaking down organic matter. Insects are especially important in nutrient cycling in tropical forests, where they can make up as much as 80% of the animal biomass. The loss of insects due to habitat loss, pollution, and climate change is a major threat to ecosystem health. Without insects, nutrient cycling would slow down, plants would not be able to grow as well, and the entire food web would be affected. Insects are truly the unsung heroes of ecosystem health, and we need to do more to protect them.

Read More

Vermiwash: A Natural Liquid Bio-fertilizer

Vineet Dheer et al.

Vermiwash, a potent natural liquid biofertilizer, emerges from vermicomposting processes utilizing earthworms. Rich in essential nutrients, enzymes, and beneficial microorganisms, it offers multifaceted benefits to plant growth and soil health. Vermiwash enhances nutrient uptake, promotes root development, and strengthens disease resistance in plants. Its microbial diversity aids in organic matter decomposition, enhancing soil structure and water retention. As a sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers, vermiwash reduces environmental harm while boosting agricultural productivity. This abstract highlights vermiwash's potential to revolutionize modern agriculture by harnessing the power of nature to cultivate healthier crops and foster more resilient ecosystems.

Read More

Fertigation: Elevating Vegetable Crop Performance

Viral K. Baria et al.

Vegetables are vital for India's agriculture and nutrition. The country is the world's second largest vegetable producer, contributing 14.45 % of global output at 90.8 million metric tons. Micro-irrigation enhances water efficiency, reducing water needs while boosting yields. Drip fertigation, using soluble fertilizers, improves root systems, saving water (30-70%) and increasing productivity (20-80%) for various crops. This approach triples yields with the same water amount. Efficient water use is essential for vegetable growth and resource conservation.

Read More

Bathukamma Festival Flower Arrangement: A Vibrant Celebration of Nature's Bounty

Myadam Naveen Kumar et al.

Bathukamma, the vibrant floral festival celebrated in Telangana, India, showcases an exuberant flower arrangement tradition that exemplifies the region's rich culture and heritage. The event, typically held during the auspicious month of October, brings communities together to create elaborate floral stacks symbolizing the goddess, Gauri. Women, dressed in traditional attire, participate in the ritualistic arrangement of diverse local flowers into mesmerizing concentric patterns. Each layer of the Bathukamma stack represents a specific theme or story from folklore, fostering a sense of unity and harmony among women. The practice not only preserves local floral diversity but also promotes social cohesion, cultural identity, and a profound connection with nature and tradition."

Read More

Eco-friendly Management of Plant Diseases

Vishwa Vijay Raghuvanshi et al.

Currently, the widespread application of pesticides to treat plant diseases pollutes the environment day by day. Given the rising environmental pollution issues brought on by a greater understanding of the drawbacks of the widespread application of agro-chemicals, eco-farming is now identified as a key area on a global scale. It is possible to manage plant diseases using biological, cultural, and conventional methods. Although synthetic pesticides do contribute significantly to the suppression of the plant disease, their adverse effects on people and soil biodiversity make it important to utilise biological control techniques in their place. These strategies involve using various antagonists, like fungus and bacteria, as well as combining them.

Read More

Role of Mutation Breeding in Crop Improvement

Raj Kumar and Nandan Kumar

Crop improvement for any character depends upon the genetic variability present in that population. Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. Mutation can be utilized by researchers to improve both qualitative and quantitative characters. Mutagenesis can be done by giving a physical or chemical mutagen treatment. Along with these treatments, site-specific mutations can be used in mutagenesis. Growing the mutant population followed by selection or screening for particular desired traits using visual, morphological, and molecular screening helps select the desirable mutants. Instead of its low desirable frequency, it can be used for the creation of genetic variability, which can be used in varietal development programmes.

Read More

Unleashing Millet's Potential: Breakthroughs in Processing for Global Consumption

Madhu, D. M. et al.

Millet, an ancient grain with exceptional nutritional value and environmental benefits, has garnered increasing attention as a sustainable and versatile crop. This article explores recent breakthroughs in millet processing techniques, highlighting their potential to transform millet into a globally consumed staple. We delve into advancements in dehulling, milling, and extrusion processes that enhance millet's palatability, nutritional profile, and culinary versatility. By leveraging these breakthroughs, millet can be harnessed as an essential ingredient in diverse food products, catering to the growing demand for healthier, more sustainable food choices worldwide.

Read More

Importance of Training and Pruning in Capsicum Cultivation in Protected Environments

D. C. Barot et al.

The article explores the importance of training and pruning in the cultivation of capsicum (bell peppers) in protected environments. Pruning and training practices are crucial for maximizing fruit quality, plant lifespan, and crop yield. Pruning helps create a balanced vegetative and reproductive growth in plants, improves air circulation, and facilitates pest and disease control. Training, on the other hand, involves removing certain parts of the plant to shape it properly and support heavy crop loads. The article suggests specific pruning techniques for capsicum plants, such as retaining four stems and splitting the branches to achieve bigger fruits and higher productivity. The study emphasizes the significance of training and pruning in achieving higher yields in capsicum cultivation, particularly in protected environments.

Read More

Role of Nanotechnology in Food Industry

Anushruti et al.

Nanotechnology is a revolutionary and futuristic technology that is currently used to numerous industries, such as agriculture, food production, and medical. Every component of the food system, from growing food to processing, packaging, and shipping to shelf life and nutritional bioavailability, is impacted by this new, quickly evolving technology. In order to offer consumers with food that is safe and free of contamination and to ensure that the food has enhanced functional capabilities, this paper summarizes the potential for using nanoparticles in the food business.

Read More

Nanotechnology: Paving the Way for Future of Agriculture

Akarsha Raj and Anchal Karol

Nanotechnology is the science and technology of manipulating matter at atomic or molecular size and allows scientists and engineers to create novel materials, gadgets, and systems with improved qualities and functionality. Nanomedicine employs nanoparticles to deliver medications to specific cells, tissues, or organs, thereby increasing treatment efficacy and decreasing side effects. Nanotechnology is required for the creation of smaller, faster, and more efficient electrical gadgets, solar cells, energy storage devices, and fuel cells. Nanomaterials have distinct features that make them helpful in fields such as aerospace, building, and manufacturing. However, concerns have been raised concerning the potential environmental and health problems connected with nanoparticles. Regulations and safety measures are being created as research continues to ensure responsible development and usage of nanotechnology.

Read More