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Harnessing the Potential of Summer Green Gram Cultivation to Address Protein Deficiency

Narinder Singh et al.

Pulses are not only a vital source of nutrition but also an integral part of the agricultural economy in India which is contributing towards food security, and economic growth. Their versatility in cooking allows for a wide range of culinary dishes and catering the varied tastes and preferences. In irrigated tracts of Northern India, as compared to other pulses, summer green gram can play an important role in boosting pulse production. As of shorter maturity duration, summer green gram is sown after harvesting of Rabi season crops. By implementing some strategies and policies, India can achieve self-sufficiency in pulse production and can address the deficit in domestic demand.

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The Nectar of Nature: Vermi Tea's Secret to Thriving Gardens

Sashwat Panda et al.

Growers and farmers alike benefit from vermi tea, a powerful organic fertilizer made from worm castings. This nutrient-dense elixir supports strong plant development and soil vitality by providing essential nutrients, enzymes, and beneficial bacteria. Harvesting, filtering, and diluting are just a few of the easy stages involved in its manufacture, making it readily available to everyone. Vermi tea, when used by foliar spraying or soil soaking, improves plant health, increases soil fertility, and even helps with organic insect management. Using vermi tea promotes environmentally friendly farming techniques that lessen the need for artificial fertilizers and create a more robust, greener ecosystem.

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Insect Pest Management in Menthol Mint

Sandeep K et al.

The cultivation of Japanese Mint (Mentha arvensis) in northern India is a vital practice due to its high menthol content, making it a key source of mint oil for various industries. However, this cultivation faces challenges from insect pests like the mint flea beetle, mint bud mite, mint aphid, cutworms, and thrips, which can significantly impact crop health and yield. To combat these pests sustainably, farmers employ Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies, including cultural practices, biological control, chemical control, monitoring, and mechanical methods. By integrating these approaches, farmers can effectively manage pest populations while minimizing environmental impact. Additionally, the use of biological control agents like ladybugs and botanical insecticides derived from mint essential oils offers a sustainable alternative to synthetic pesticides. Implementing these eco-friendly pest management practices is crucial for ensuring the long-term health, yield, and quality of menthol mint crops, contributing to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem balance in mint fields.

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Future Trends and Innovations in Integrated Farming Systems

Vaibhav Yadav et al.

This article briefly describes about future advances of Integrated Farming System (IFS) and its new approaches in agriculture. In general IFS is the integration of various enterprises leads to the increase in production, sustainability, employment opportunities and reduce the socio-economic risks for the millions of small and marginal farmers which added account for a major share in Indian agriculture. Keeping in view, to overcome the ever-increasing population and demand for food, fodder and fuel, the adoption of IFS models which suited to the different farming sectors is to be formulated and ensured the proper awareness towards the farming community.

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Big Data Analysis and Its Impact on Agriculture

Ankit Kumar Singh et al.

Big data analysis, with its capability to process large and diverse datasets, offers innovative solutions for sustainable agricultural practices. By leveraging IoT devices for real-time data collection from fields, soil, plants, and machinery, coupled with cloud-based integration of additional information like weather data, analysts may derive important insights and patterns. These insights enable precise farming practices, predictive algorithms for issue identification, and proactive problem-solving, ultimately leading to improved resource utilization, minimized environmental impact, and enhanced agricultural productivity. This article highlights the transformative potential of big data analytics in agriculture, emphasizing the need for stakeholders to embrace these technologies to address the challenge of increasing food production sustainably while minimizing environmental damage.

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Maximizing Agricultural Profits: Assessing the Influence of Diverse Cultivation Practices on Farming Returns

Karmnath Kumar and Sucheta Dahiya

This study explores the impact of diverse cultivation techniques, including traditional monoculture, polyculture, agroforestry, and sustainable farming methods, on agricultural profitability. For agricultural stakeholders, governments, and farmers looking to optimize profitability while encouraging sustainable land use and building resilience against global issues, our findings provide insightful information. Through the use of empirical data and econometric models, we assess the economic feasibility of various cultivation methods taking into account variables like yield variability, input costs, market demand, and environmental externalities. These practices not only offer economic benefits but also contribute to environmental conservation, biodiversity preservation, and climate change mitigation. These practices not only offer economic benefits but also contribute to environmental conservation, biodiversity preservation, and climate change mitigation. Given the diverse array of cultivation practices available, it becomes imperative to assess their influence on farming returns comprehensively. Key themes include crop diversity, water management, integrated pest management (IPM), and market opportunities with value-added products. Findings highlight the importance of these practices for enhancing farm returns while promoting sustainability.

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Nano Technology in Agriculture: Revolutionizing Farming Practices

Rishav Singh and Sucheta Dahiya

Nanotechnology is the science of handling matter at the atomic and molecular scale and has emerged as a promising field with applications across various sectors, including agriculture. In recent years, nanotechnology has garnered significant attention in agriculture due to its potential to revolutionize farming practices by enhancing crop productivity, improving nutrient management, mitigating environmental impacts, and enabling precision farming. This article discusses nanotechnology's role in agriculture, discussing its applications, benefits, challenges, and prospects.

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The Monitoring and Maintenance of Soil Health in Agriculture Assisted by IoT

Divya Chadha et al.

The necessity for industrialization and intensification in the agricultural sector has increased due to the growing demand for food in terms of both quantity and quality. The Internet of Things, or IoT, is a very promising technology that offers the agriculture industry numerous creative ways to modernise. Scientific teams and research facilities are always trying to use IoT to solve many agricultural areas with products and solutions.

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Comprehensive Approach to Mitigate Powdery Mildew Disease in Mustard-Crop

Rishi Nath Pandey et al.

This study proposes a comprehensive approach to mitigate powdery mildew disease in mustard crops. Through a combination of cultural, chemical, and biological strategies, we aim to effectively manage the disease while minimizing environmental impact. Our approach includes crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, application of fungicides, and integration of biological control agents. Additionally, we explore innovative techniques such as genetic engineering for enhancing plant resistance. By adopting this integrated approach, farmers can achieve sustainable control of powdery mildew, ensuring higher yields and economic stability in mustard cultivation.

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Strategic Measures for Effective Black Rot Management in Mustard Crops

Rishi Nath Pandey et al.

Effective management of black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) in mustard crops requires a strategic approach to mitigate yield losses and maintain crop health. This abstract explores key measures for successful black rot management, including cultural practices, crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, and integrated pest management techniques. Emphasis is placed on early detection methods and timely application of control measures to minimize disease spread. Additionally, the importance of farmer education and awareness programs in implementing sustainable management practices is highlighted. Implementing these strategic measures is crucial for sustaining mustard crop production and ensuring food security.

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Integrated Disease Management for Alternaria Blight in Mustard Crop

Rishi Nath Pandey et al.

Alternaria leaf blight poses a significant threat to mustard crops worldwide, causing substantial yield losses and quality deterioration. This abstract presents an integrated disease management approach aimed at mitigating Alternaria blight in mustard crops. The strategy involves the synergistic application of cultural, chemical, and biological control measures. Cultural practices include crop rotation, sanitation, and proper irrigation management to minimize disease incidence. Chemical control involves the judicious use of fungicides, applying them preventively or curatively based on disease severity and weather conditions. Additionally, biological control agents, such as antagonistic microorganisms and biofungicides, are incorporated to suppress pathogen populations. Adoption of resistant mustard varieties further enhances disease resilience. Implementing this integrated approach offers a sustainable and effective means to manage Alternaria blight, reducing reliance on single control methods and promoting long-term crop health and productivity.

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The Power of Precision Farming: Cultivating a Sustainable Future

Ashish Yadav and Sucheta Dahiya

Precision farming maximizes crop yields and minimizes environmental impact through data-driven techniques like soil analysis and real-time monitoring. Benefits include increased food security, resource efficiency, cost savings, environmental stewardship, and climate adaptation. Challenges like technology access persist, especially for small-scale farmers. Collaboration between stakeholders is crucial for widespread adoption, requiring investments in research, infrastructure, and policy. Precision farming represents an investment in the future, promising to nourish generations while preserving the planet's health.

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Innovative Approaches for Crop Improvement in Integrated Nutrient and Weed Management using GIS and GPS

Ankush and Sucheta Dahiya

This article discusses the innovative approaches for crop improvement in integrated nutrient and weed management using GIS and GPS. It highlights the limitations of conventional methods in achieving optimal crop yields and the need for innovative approaches to meet the growing demand for food. The article covers various approaches, such as site-specific nutrient management, precision weed management, variable rate application, automated irrigation management, crop yield monitoring, decision support systems, remote sensing, and integrated pest management, that can help farmers manage their resources more efficiently and effectively. The use of GIS and GPS in these approaches enables farmers to map and determine the specific requirements of their crops, reducing the cost of inputs and minimizing their impact on the environment. These innovative approaches can increase crop yields and reduce losses due to pests, weather, or other factors. Educating and encouraging farmers to adopt these innovative approaches is crucial to promoting sustainable agriculture.

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The Important Role of Integrated Nutrient Management in Optimizing Crop Yield and Soil Fertility

Ritik Balihar and Sucheta Dahiya

Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) stands as a holistic approach to sustainable agriculture, addressing the dual objectives of enhancing crop yield and preserving soil fertility. By synergizing organic and inorganic nutrient sources, along with agronomic practices, INM optimizes nutrient availability for crops while promoting soil health and resilience. This article highlights the important role of INM in elevating crop productivity and soil fertility, fostering agricultural sustainability, and ensuring food security for present and future generations. Through balanced nutrient supply, enhanced nutrient use efficiency, and preservation of soil health, INM offers a pathway towards resilient, productive, and environmentally sound agriculture. Embracing INM practices empowers farmers to cultivate healthy soils, nurture thriving crops, and build a sustainable future for agriculture.

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Maximizing Crop Yields: Understanding Nutrient Management Techniques

Sakshi Katoch and Sucheta Dahiya

Effective nutrient management techniques are essential for achieving optimal crop yields and ensuring sustainable agricultural practices. This abstract presents an overview of the fundamental principles and strategies involved in nutrient management aimed at enhancing crop productivity. By delving into the intricacies of soil fertility, nutrient requirements, and the utilization of fertilizers, this study elucidates the key factors influencing plant growth and development. Moreover, it explores advanced practices such as precision agriculture, integrated nutrient management, and the utilization of organic amendments to optimize nutrient availability and uptake by crops. Through a comprehensive understanding of nutrient management techniques, farmers and agricultural practitioners can make informed decisions to maximize yields while minimizing environmental impact, thus contributing to global food security and agricultural sustainability.

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Innovative Approaches for Millets Cultivation, its Marketing and Government Subsidies

Akanksha and Sucheta Dahiya

The International Year of Millets, declared by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, underscores millets' nutritional richness and environmental sustainability. India's Millet Revolution seeks to harness these benefits for public health and sustainable agriculture. This paper explores innovative approaches for millet cultivation, marketing strategies, and government subsidies aimed at revitalizing millet farming. Agro ecological practices, climate-smart techniques, precision farming technologies, improved varieties, and farmer training enhance millet cultivation sustainability. Marketing strategies focus on value addition, branding, market linkages, and certification to stimulate consumer demand. Government subsidies include support for seeds, inputs, infrastructure, market interventions, and research, promoting millet farming viability and market accessibility. Initiatives such as the National Millets Mission and inclusion in public distribution systems bolster millet promotion. Leveraging these approaches and government support can unlock millets' full potential, contributing to sustainable food systems and security.

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Adapting Agriculture: Climate Change's Impact on Food Security and Strategies for Resilience

Kavita Solanki et al.

Climate change presents substantial obstacles to worldwide food security, endangering agricultural output and exacerbating food insecurity worldwide. This abstract provides an overview of the influence of climate change on the security of food supplies highlighting key factors such as shifting weather patterns, extreme weather events, and disruptions to ecosystems. It explores how these changes are affecting crop yields, livestock production, and the livelihoods of farmers, particularly in vulnerable regions. Additionally, the abstract discusses the consequences of climate change on the accessibility and availability of food and nutritional quality, as well as the interconnected social, economic, and environmental consequences. Finally, it examines the urgent need for adaptation and mitigation strategies to build resilience in agricultural systems and ensure food security for present and future generations in a changing climate.

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Dhundi Solar Cooperative- A Sustainable Agri-Business Model in Gujarat

Vishnu S U and Shaktiranjan Panigrahy

The Dhundi Solar Cooperative, established in Gujarat, pioneered solar-powered irrigation, has been selling surplus energy to the grid. Supported by IWMI and the state Govt., it empowered farmers, reducing reliance on diesel pumps, ensuring eco-friendly irrigation, and generating additional income. Capacity building, government schemes, and knowledge sharing through different institutions expanded its impact on farmers wellbeing and fostering solar entrepreneurship. Its success led to replication in Mujkuva village, amplifying sustainable agriculture and rural development.

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Achieving Success in Mushroom Cultivation: Essential Steps Unraveled

Rishi Nath Pandey et al.

This abstract covers the key stages of mushroom production, from cultivation to postharvest management. It highlights advancements in cultivation techniques and processing methods that enhance efficiency, extend shelf life, and preserve nutritional value. Postharvest practices such as sterilization, canning, and pickling are discussed for quality maintenance. Emphasis is placed on the importance of proper washing and packaging methods to meet market demands and consumer preferences. Overall, understanding and implementing these practices is essential for successful mushroom production enterprises, with ongoing research needed to meet changing consumer needs.

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Three School of Classification: A Scientific Approach in Phylogeny

Brajrajsharan Tiwari et al.

This study explores the methodologies and theoretical foundations of three primary schools of biological classification: Phenetics, Cladistics, and Evolutionary Systematics. Phenetics, a quantitative analysis of phenotypic traits, prioritizes overall similarity without considering evolutionary history, but faces risks of generating artificial groupings due to convergent evolution. Cladistics, rooted in evolutionary theory, uses shared derived characters to construct cladograms, emphasizing monophyletic groups and evolutionary relationships. Evolutionary Systematics integrates both phenetics and cladistics principles, aiming for a holistic view of the evolutionary process. It faces challenges in defining clear classification criteria and integrating diverse datasets. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of the strengths and limitations of each classification school, contributing to the refinement of classification methodologies and understanding evolutionary relationships among diverse organisms.

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Use of Plasma Technology in Textile

Ms. Anjali Lohan et al.

Many of the greatest manufacturing businesses in the world depend heavily on plasma processing technologies. The electronics sector is the most important of these businesses, as plasma-based technologies are essential for the creation of extremely large-scale integrated microelectronic circuits. A crucial technology in the biomedical, aerospace, automotive, steel, textile and toxic waste management sectors is plasma material processing. It is well known that plasma-treated surfaces play a dominant role in important industrial sectors, such as microelectronics, and that plasmas are used to modify a wide variety of material surfaces, including those made of plastic, polymers and resins, paper and board, metals, ceramics, and organic and biomaterials. Plasmas are also used experimentally for industrial purpose. Significant research has been conducted on low temperature plasma treatments of a variety of fibrous materials in laboratories all over the world since the early 1980s in the field of textiles, with very encouraging results regarding the enhancement of various functional properties in plasma-treated textiles. A number of old wet chemistry-based textile processing methods that use a lot of water, energy, and effluents will gradually be replaced by various low-alcohol and dry-finishing methods as a result of the growing environmental and energy-saving concerns. When plasma technology is developed to a level where it is commercially practical, it has a great deal of promise for achieving novel textile capabilities in an appealing manner. With a focus on their possible applications in the textile industry, this work's goal is to provide a thorough overview and review of plasma use associated with textile finishing.

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Vulture Bees: Nature's Carrion Connoisseurs

K. Sowmya and Kishore S. M.

Vulture bees, belonging to the Trigona genus, exclusively feasting on carrion or dead animal proteins rather than gathering pollen or nectar. Adapted to various climates, they exhibit a preference for raw, fresh meat and have been observed foraging from a wide array of animal species. With distinctive reddish-brown hairs and large, pointed teeth, vulture bees efficiently dismantle carcasses with their mandibles. Unlike their pollen-collecting counterparts, vulture bees produce a unique honey rich in protein, derived from their specialized diet. These stingless bees, found primarily in neotropical regions, exhibit complex social structures and nest-building behaviours, often utilizing abandoned termite nests for colonization. While their role in pollination remains unclear, vulture bees play a crucial ecological role as carrion consumers, contributing to nutrient cycling and ecosystem health. Despite limited scientific inquiry, their evolutionary adaptation to a carnivorous lifestyle marks them as a remarkable example of nature's diversity. This review synthesizes current knowledge on vulture bee biology, behaviour, and ecological significance, shedding light on these intriguing insects and highlighting avenues for future research.

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Role of Artificial Intelligence (A.I) and Machine Learning in Soil Moisture Determination

Varanasi Adarsh et al.

Soil moisture is the average moisture content of the soil, and it is important for hydrological measurements. The analysis of surface soil moisture has gained popularity using satellite remote sensing. This maximizes water use in agriculture by managing irrigation effectively. An effective method that utilizes microwave radar sensors in the range of 3 to 10 GHz, in combination with machine learning, has been developed. These sensors can determine the level of moisture present in the soil by detecting the reflected waves. Machine learning algorithms can estimate soil moisture by analyzing the correlation of reflected signals with input characteristics. This method improves agricultural water management by giving farmers access to real-time soil moisture data, which they may use to modify their irrigation schedules. This technique estimates moisture percentages with accuracy and determines effective soil moisture monitoring, eventually supporting sustainable agricultural practices, by applying machine learning algorithms and remote sensing technologies.

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Plant Pathogens on the Rise: The Role of Climate Change in Expanding Host Range

Lellapalli Rithesh et al.

As climate change intensifies, the agricultural sector faces a significant but often overlooked challenge: the expanding host range of plant pathogens. This phenomenon, driven by altered temperature and precipitation patterns, enables pathogens to colonize new crops and regions, posing a threat to global food security. Climate-induced temperature shifts extend pathogen growth periods, while changes in precipitation patterns create favorable environments for pathogens and weaken plants during droughts. Ecosystem disruptions and human activities further facilitate pathogen movement globally. The consequences include reduced crop yields, shifts in crop suitability, increased economic burden, and threats to food security. Mitigating this threat requires collaborative efforts, including research, surveillance, resilient crop development, integrated pest management, climate-smart agriculture, and international cooperation. By understanding and addressing the mechanisms behind this phenomenon, researchers can protect agricultural productivity and ensure food security amidst the challenges of climate change.

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A Review on Pesticides Effect on Marine Flora and Fauna

Mayur Bhadarka et al.

The extensive utilization of pesticides in diverse sectors presents considerable challenges to marine ecosystems, prompting the need for comprehensive measures to safeguard marine flora and fauna. Pesticides, utilized in agriculture, forestry, and aquaculture for pest management, have been linked to reproductive toxicity, declines in freshwater organism populations, and the contamination of fish intended for human consumption. These chemical substances inadvertently enter marine environments through various pathways, disrupting the delicate equilibrium of marine ecosystems. Pesticides impact marine flora by infiltrating aquatic environments, resulting in detrimental effects on phytoplankton and primary producers. Similarly, marine fauna experiences a range of adverse effects, including population declines and reproductive toxicity, as a result of pesticide contamination. Strategies such as regulatory measures, precision application techniques, conservation tillage practices, integrated pest management, education and outreach programs, and monitoring and research efforts are essential for mitigating the pesticide impact on marine ecosystems. Through the collective implementation of these strategies, it is possible to minimize the adverse effects of pesticides and promote sustainable pest management practices to protect marine flora and fauna.

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Unleashing Neem: Transforming Vermicomposting for Greener Soils

Puspanjali Nag et al.

Neem adds a revolutionary change toward environmentally conscious and sustainable agriculture to vermicomposting. Proud of its many agricultural benefits, neem works in tandem with vermicomposting to offer a complete solution. By using the nutrient-rich properties of neem, this novel approach improves compost quality and increases soil fertility, structure, and microbial life. The procedure is collecting neem leaves or cake, adding earthworms to help with decomposition, and placing the materials inside a vermicompost bed. The resulting vermicompost, which has been infused with neem, has several benefits, such as improved plant growth, increased soil vitality, natural insect management, and reduced environmental impact. Neem-based vermicomposting shines a light on ecological responsibility and agricultural innovation by promoting green practices, reusing organic waste, and fostering sustainable agriculture.

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Waste to Wealth

Rakesh Barad et al.

"Waste to Wealth" is a sustainable concept that transforms discarded materials into valuable resources. This approach not only reduces the burden on landfills but also offers economic benefits. By employing innovative recycling and recovery techniques, waste materials are converted into products of higher value. This includes energy generation from organic waste, creating building materials from plastic waste, and extracting precious metals from electronic waste. It is a significant step towards a circular economy, promoting environmental conservation while stimulating economic growth. It embodies the principle of "reduce, reuse, and recycle", paving the way for a sustainable future.

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Bioremediation Technique in Ameliorating Heavy Metal Toxicity in Soil

Suchismita Dwibedi and Kavita Solanki

The presence of heavy metals in soil presents notable environmental and health hazards on a global scale, demanding the implementation of efficient remedial measures. Bioremediation techniques offer a promising approach to mitigate heavy metal toxicity in soil through the utilization of living organisms. This review explores various bioremediation methods, including biodegradation, bioaccumulation, and phytoextraction, focusing on their efficacy in reducing heavy metal concentrations and restoring soil health. By harnessing the metabolic capabilities of microbes, bioremediation processes can transform or sequester heavy metals, thereby minimizing their bioavailability and potential harm to ecosystems and human health. Despite challenges such as optimizing efficiency and scalability, research and innovation persist to enhance the efficacy and applicability of bioremediation techniques. This review underscores the importance of bioremediation as an eco-conscious and sustainable method. to ameliorating heavy metal toxicity in soil and emphasizes the need for further research and implementation to address this pressing global issue.

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Nature's Pharmacy: Exploring Potential Therapeutics Role of Neem (Azadirachta indica L.)

Anushka Singh et al.

The therapeutic potential of Azadirachta indica (neem) and its active constituents has garnered significant attention in the medical community. Neem, a versatile plant native to South Asia, has been utilized in traditional medicine for centuries. Its active constituents offer a plethora of therapeutic benefits. Nimbin, a triterpenoid in neem oil, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making it effective in managing conditions like arthritis and skin disorders. Azadirachtin, another prominent compound, serves as a natural pesticide in agriculture and shows promise in inhibiting certain cancer cell growth. Nimbolide, found in neem leaves and seeds, demonstrates antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Neem's antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties have been widely documented, making it invaluable in treating various infections and bolstering the immune system. Moreover, its role in oral health, wound healing, and gastrointestinal disorders has been explored. Overall, the therapeutic versatility of neem and its active constituents underscores its potential in modern medicine.

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Climate Change and Its Impact on Food Security: A Looming Crisis

Praduman Tyagi et al.

A complex threat to global food security, climate change creates difficulties for access, distribution, and production. This study explores the complex relationship between food security and climate change, emphasizing the escalation of current vulnerabilities and the creation of new ones. The effects of climate change on agriculture are extensive and wide-ranging, ranging from modified precipitation patterns to catastrophic weather occurrences. Socioeconomic factors exacerbate food insecurity by magnifying inequities in food access and adding to the complexity of the problem. A comprehensive strategy that incorporates climate adaption tactics, sustainable agriculture methods, and fair food distribution systems is needed to mitigate these problems. A global food insecurity crisis could soon erupt if strong action is not taken.

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Chili Pest Management: Eco-Friendly Strategies

Brajrajsharan Tiwari et al.

Bio-intensive pest management (IPM) is a sustainable approach for controlling sucking insect pests like whitefly, chilli mite, and thrips in agriculture. It involves understanding pest ecology and using preventive and biological control methods to maintain pest populations within acceptable levels. This strategy includes crop rotation, habitat manipulation, and promoting natural enemies to reduce reliance on chemical pesticides. For whitefly, IPM focuses on conserving natural predators and using insecticidal soaps and botanical extracts. Similarly, for chilli mite and thrips, cultural practices and natural enemy conservation are emphasized. Implementing bio-intensive IPM offers benefits such as reduced chemical usage, decreased environmental impact, and sustainable pest management. Overall, it presents a promising solution for managing sucking insect pests while promoting ecosystem health and resilience in agriculture.

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A Review of Global Warming Effect on Aquatic Flora and Fauna

Hardik Sikotariya et al.

Global warming presents a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems, impacting both flora and fauna in various ways. Experimental studies and predictions highlight the potential for substantial biodiversity losses, particularly in freshwater ecosystems spanning mountain streams, river basins, and lowland rivers. The combined effects of warming and contaminants can produce complex interactions, further complicating conservation efforts. This phenomenon extends to tropical wetlands, where the impacts on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity remain inadequately understood. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions exacerbate these effects, contributing to ozone layer depletion and disrupting marine habitats. The interconnectedness of Earth's ecosystems amplifies the consequences, potentially leading to species extinction by the end of the century. Mitigation and adaptation strategies are essential, involving conservation, restoration, and reduction of non-climate stressors.

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How to Regulate the Export, Import, and Release of Beneficial Organisms & Biological Control Agents

Dr. Sharad B Sable

This article describes to export, import and release of biological control agents (e.g., parasitoids, predators, parasites and pathogens (nematodes, fungi, bacteria and viruses) and other beneficial organisms both for research and commercial use. The exporter must ensure that the consignment of biological control agents and beneficial organisms exported are complied with regulations of importing country; is securely packed and appropriately labeled before export; provide appropriate documentation related to the export of specific biological control agents and beneficial organisms and relevant information to facilitate carrying out pest risk analysis. The importer must ensure to provide appropriate documentation and relevant information related to the import of specific biological control agents and beneficial organisms, ensure timely referring imported consignments for quarantine inspection, and where required establish appropriate containment facilities as per guidelines prescribed by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation.

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Aeroponics: The Modern Concept of Agriculture for Global Nutritional Security

Sushil Kumar Sahoo et al.

Aeroponics represents an innovative technique for cultivating plants without soil, that could address future food security challenges as a faster and more resource-efficient approach. As traditional methods were struggling with a growing global population with limited resources, modern approach like aeroponics is game changer for the agriculture with long term & cost effectiveness plant cultivation. This farming method has the potential to improve plant growth without relying on artificial hormones, insecticides or pesticides. Compared to alternative methods, it boasts superior features such as aeration, efficient water use, reduced space requirements, and propagation of disease-free plants. Aeroponics suspends plants in a misty environment delivering essential nutrients & oxygen directly to the roots. In this scenario aeroponics emerges as a potential of frontrunner, offering a revolutionary approach to cultivation. Aeroponics farms can flourish not just an earth but potentially even beyond, paving the way of upcoming productive agriculture.

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Advances in Fertilizers

Sayali Biradar and Vishakha Bandgar

Crops require set of essential macro and micro nutrients to complete their lifecycle successfully. Introduction of fertilizers and synthetic nutrient sources has drastically changed the Indian agricultural system since last five decades. It started as a boon for farmers with its improving yield results but turned into a bane after severe unscientific application and turned into major soil pollutant. With advancement in science and technology these nutrient sources are also continuously updating in its effectiveness, mode of action and sustainability. This article is an attempt to introduce and enlist all advance fertilizers that are available in market to spread its introductory information.

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Smoke to Sustainability: Eco-friendly Alternatives for Rice Stubble Burning

Shreya and Vikas

Rice stubble burning is a widespread post-harvest tradition in rice growing regions across the world, but it's posing severe threats to human health and environmental stability. The smoke released is full of toxic particles, leading to respiratory problems and worsening global warming. This article stresses the urgent need for solutions. It explores how we can turn rice stubble into eco-friendly alternatives to plastic and thermocol. Many startups are already working on this. Instead of just talking about the dangers of stubble burning, this article pushes for action. It suggests using stubble for better purposes, like making sustainable products, to protect our health and the planet. With some innovation and teamwork, we can move away from harmful practices and create a cleaner, healthier future for everyone.

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Climate Resilient Agriculture-A Strategy to Mitigate Climate Change Impact

Vaishali et al.

Climate change-induced erratic weather patterns, extreme events and shifting environmental conditions pose unprecedented challenges to food security and agricultural sustainability worldwide. Climate-resilient agriculture (CRA) includes a range of practices that help farmers adapt to and mitigate these challenges. Climate-resilient agriculture (CRA) offers innovative solutions like smart crop selection, no-till farming, water-saving techniques and agroforestry that sequester carbon. Advanced technologies such as biochar, nanofertlizers and precision management boost resilience. In India, national programs like NMSA, PMKSY, ABHY and NMAF are working on CRA, thus contributing in securing sustainable food production amid climate challenges. By implementing CRA, we can foster a climate-resilient agricultural sector and safeguard food security for the future.

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Techniques of Seed Priming and their Impact on Germination, Establishment and Vigour of Seeds

Hridesh Harsha Sarma and Akash Paul

Challenges related to inadequate seedling emergence and suboptimal stand establishment are prevalent in regions with low rainfall. Soil texture and structure management in semiarid areas pose significant hurdles. Limited resources among small-scale farmers often hinder fine seedbed preparation, exposing them to greater risks compared to their more affluent counterparts. Conversely, achieving robust establishment enhances weed competitiveness, drought resilience, yield potential, and mitigates the need for costly resowing. Seed priming is widely recognized for its ability to enhance germination, expedite emergence, and improve stand establishment. This cost-effective and straightforward technique, if refined and promoted with farmer involvement, can substantially enhance livelihoods by boosting crop emergence rates, accelerating development, shortening crop cycles, and ultimately increasing productivity. Numerous studies attest to the importance of seed priming in achieving strong crop stands and optimal emergence. On-farm seed priming, particularly hydro-priming, shows promise for improving crop establishment across various tropical crops like sorghum, rice, maize, and pigeon pea. Additionally, seed priming can confer resistance to stresses such as drought and heat, offering further advantages in key field crops.

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Exploring Solid Waste Management in Bihar: Drawing Insights from Global Success Stories for a Cleaner and Greener State

Nayanmoni Kalita et al.

Bihar, one of India?s most densely populated states, faces substantial hurdles in effective management of solid waste originated from different sources. If looked around, prime reasons might include huge population expansion, inadequate infrastructure, swift urban transformation and primarily lack of education and awareness. This article tends to explore the present complex scenario of solid waste management in the lands of Bihar while highlighting challenges and future substantial solutions. Any solid material which is produced in the course of daily human actions which is discarded or undesirable is termed as solid waste. The key components of solid waste management are waste generation, storage, waste collection, transportation and waste disposal. Solid waste management is based on the principles of waste generation, storage, systematic collection, handling, transportation and safe disposal. The hierarchy of solid waste management involves Waste reduction, recycling practices and appropriate disposal methods to mitigate environmental risks, preserve resources and foster sustainability. In Bihar, concerted efforts are of utmost importance in each component. The ?Dolphin Man? of India, an environmental conservationist Dr. R K Sinha says ?Patna is one of the worst cities in terms solid waste management?. According to the National Green Tribunal, in 2023 Bihar generated 3,000 metric tons (MT) of solid waste per day and plastic waste accounts for 5-6% of the total waste. In addition to that, less than 50% of the total waste generated is properly collected and maintained. However, Bihar is witnessing a paradigm shift in the sustainable management of solid waste. From biogas plants to pyrolysis that converts waste into energy are being implemented in the state. The state can learn from Zero waste initiatives in San Francisco. Therefore, collective action is needed while advocating for policies and interventions that will prioritize sustainability.

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Systems Biology and Network Genetics for Crop Improvement

Aditya Pratap Singh

Crop improvement is paramount to meeting the increasing global demand for food amidst challenges such as population growth, climate change, and resource limitations. Traditionally, selective breeding has been the primary method, but recent advances in systems biology and network genetics offer revolutionary approaches. Systems biology elucidates the intricate molecular machinery of plant cells, while network genetics maps gene interactions within plants. Integrating multi-omics data provides comprehensive insights into plant biology, aiding in crop enhancement. Predictive modeling, employing genomic selection and network-based approaches, accelerates breeding programs. Gene editing technologies like CRISPR-Cas9 enable precise genetic modifications guided by systems biology insights. The integration of systems biology and network genetics promises to revolutionize crop breeding, ensuring sustainable agriculture and food security for future generations.

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Shellfish Safety: Navigating Bacterial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

Shailendra Kumar et al.

Shellfish safety is a paramount concern in shrimp aquaculture due to the prevalence of bacterial diseases that can adversely impact both the health of the shrimp and the economic viability of aquaculture operations. Bacterial diseases such as Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio alginolyticus represent significant threats to shrimp health and production. These pathogens can proliferate rapidly in aquaculture environments, leading to mass mortalities and substantial economic losses. Moreover, the presence of these bacteria in shrimp can also pose risks to human health if contaminated products are consumed. Effective management of bacterial diseases in shrimp aquaculture requires a multifaceted approach. This includes implementing strict biosecurity measures to prevent the introduction and spread of pathogens, such as proper sanitation practices and the use of pathogen-free seedstock. Additionally, water quality management plays a crucial role in controlling bacterial populations and reducing disease incidence. Techniques such as probiotics, immunostimulants, and biofloc technology have shown promise in enhancing shrimp immune function and reducing susceptibility to bacterial infections. The implementing effective strategies for prevention and control, aquaculture producers can safeguard shellfish safety, protect shrimp health, and ensure the sustainability of the industry.

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Impacts of Microplastics on the Ganga River Ecosystem and Fisheries

Shailendra Kumar et al.

The Ganga River, revered as sacred and vital for millions of people in India, faces a growing threat from microplastic pollution. This review examines the effects of microplastics on the Ganga River ecosystem and its fisheries. Microplastics, tiny plastic particles measuring less than 5 mm, enter the Ganga through various land-based sources and surface runoffs, posing significant risks to aquatic life. The unique hydrological characteristics of the Ganga River, including variable water velocity, contribute to the transport and accumulation of microplastics, further exacerbating pollution levels. The presence of microplastics in the Ganga River ecosystem has diverse impacts on aquatic organisms, including fish species such as Gharials (Gavialis gangeticus) and the Ganga River dolphin (Platanista gangetica), which are integral to the river's biodiversity. Effective mitigation strategies, including improved waste management practices, public awareness campaigns, and policy interventions, are essential to safeguarding the Ganga River ecosystem and sustaining fisheries for future generations.

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Improving Performance of Bio-Control Agents through Use of Kairomones

A. Krishnaveni et al.

Kairomones are interspecific semio-chemicals produced by one species that induce advantageous responses in a different species. They play a pivotal role in entomophagy foraging activities and host location. These chemical cues originate from various sources including host and non-host plants, host insects and synthetic compounds. Major chemical constituents of kairomones include terpenes, flavonoids, terpenoids and saturated hydrocarbons. Insects detect these semio-chemicals through specialized receptors, primarily located on antennae, palps and ovipositors. The host location process in parasitoids involves habitat location, host recognition and acceptance phases, employing visual and volatile cues. Kairomones significantly influence tritrophic interactions in agroecosystems, shaping the foraging behaviour and reproductive strategies of insect pests and their natural enemies.

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Fishing Ban Regulations in Inland Fisheries

Parul et al.

Fisheries resources are subject to national and international regulations to ensure responsible and sustainable use. Management measures may include quotas, size limits, gear restrictions, and monitoring programs. Balancing Conservation and Utilization of Inland fisheries serve as invaluable resources that provide sustenance, livelihoods, and recreational opportunities for communities around the world. The sustainable management of these fisheries hinges on a delicate equilibrium between resource exploitation and conservation. Fishing ban regulations emerge as pivotal tools within this management framework, offering a means to safeguard fish populations, preserve ecosystems, and ensure long-term viability. The multifaceted realm of fishing ban regulations in inland fisheries, examining their purpose, implementation, and the intricate dynamics they navigate. By temporarily restricting or halting fishing activities, these regulations address critical ecological and management concerns. Seasonal closures, size and bag limits, gear restrictions, and protected areas are among the strategies wielded to mitigate overfishing, foster reproductive success, and promote habitat preservation. The core principles underpinning fishing ban regulations, dissecting their rationale, benefits, and challenges. An exploration of scientific evidence and case studies elucidates the tangible impacts of these regulations on fish populations, ecosystems, and local communities. The abstract also scrutinizes the potential trade-offs between conservation imperatives and the socio-economic realities of those dependent on fisheries.

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Advance Textile Finishing used in Textile Industry

Ms. Pratibha et al.

Textile finishing encompasses a wide range of application to improve the qualities of textile fabrics, whether for clothes, household, or other applications. These procedures aim to improve either the fibre qualities or the overall textile end properties. These may be mechanical or chemical processes and the effects produced may be temporary, semipermanent or permanent. They involve mechanical deposition of water-soluble or water-insoluble substances in, or chemical reaction with the fabric substance or both. The constantly evolving consumer lifestyles, demand for comfort and increased applications of textile materials in technical areas within the last two decades. It is therefore imperative to review a series finishing of textile materials so as to see ways process and procedures can be used upon, to achieve better performance products / apparels. In the present review, we have been able to describe the different types of finishing used in textile processes. Further, we have been able to describe advancement in textile finishing done in different areas i.e., bio-textile, medical textile etc.

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Application of Surfactant in Textile Industry: An Overview

Ms. Anjali Lohan et al.

The textile industry extensively utilizes surfactants for various applications due to their unique properties. They promote the adsorption of dyes onto fibers and enhance the dye penetration into the fabric, resulting in improved color fastness and dye uptake. Surfactants also help in preventing the agglomeration of dyes and the formation of streaks or spots during dyeing. During the scouring process, surfactants act as emulsifiers, facilitating the removal of impurities, such as oils, waxes, and sizing agents, from the textile fibers. They improve the wetting ability of water and aid in the efficient removal of these substances, resulting in cleaner and more receptive fibers for subsequent processing steps. Surfactants are materials that lower the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. In aqueous solutions surfactants behave like organic compounds that are amphiphilic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (tails) and hydrophilic groups (heads). In water, surfactant molecules tend to cluster into a spherical geometry, non polar ends on the inside of the sphere polar ends on the outside. These clusters are called micelles. Surfactants are classified in four categories namely anionic, cationic, non-ionic and zwitter ionic surfactant on the basis of ions responsible for cleaning activity.

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Agroforestry a Viable Option for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

Navjot Singh Kaler et al.

Climate change and global warming have grown into one of the most important issues confronting humanity in the twenty-first century. Due to the buildup of major greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) in the atmosphere, mostly from human activity, the Earth's climate is changing quickly. With the growing prominence of climate change, agroforestry is increasingly acknowledged as an integrated sustainable land use system that serves as a source of carbon capture while contributing to food security, livelihoods, economics, and the mitigation of environmental degradation. This article aims to provide an overview of how climate change affects people, animals, and crops, as well as agroforestry role in mitigation and adaptation by improving soil quality and carbon sequestration, while also providing policymakers and researchers with insightful data.

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Unlocking the Potential: The Current State of Goat Farming in India

Kanta Godara et al.

Goat is a multipurpose animal that produces milk, meat, fiber and manure. Goat has been described as a poor man's cow because of its immense contribution to the poor man's economy. India has 148.88 million of goats, highest population in the world. There are 39 registered breeds of Goat in India till January, 2024. A large chunk of goat population is still non-descript. Goats in India are adopted to wide variety of Agro-climatic conditions ranging from arid dry to cold arid to hot humid, they can thrive well with poor quality roughages. Goat farming in India is characterized by poor socio-economic conditions of farmers and is faced with constraints like low returns, and poor breed and poor feed. For genetic improvement, government had started All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Goats.

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Success Story on Economic Viability of Herbicide on Weed Management in Maize

Dr. Om Prakash and Dr. Santosh Kumar

Champhai District, spanning 3185.83 square km, has a temperate climate with average rainfall of 2500mm, attracting insect pests and diseases. The district's maize production is low, with a yield of 2345 tons, largely due to poor weed management and traditional local varieties. To address this issue, chemical weed management using Atrazine is introduced. Chemical weed management using Atrazine during the kharif season can reduce cultivation costs by Rs. 5260/-. Manual weeding requires 2-3 weeding sessions and 30 man days/acre, while Atrazine costs only Rs. 180/- per packet and Rs. 200/- per spraying day, saving farmers Rs. 740/-. Chemical weed management using herbicide Atrazine is economically viable and practically feasible for controlling weeds during kharif season. It provides a weed-free environment, increasing crop yield and yield per hectare. This method reduces cultivation costs and enhances crop production by 28%, ensuring food security and higher milk production.

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Silk Road: The Path of Silk Exchange

Kishore S. M. and Yeturi Geetha Madhuri

Silk, the fibrous material woven by silkworms to form their protective cocoons during the pupal stage, stands out as a remarkable natural creation. China ranks first of being the first nation to cultivate the mulberry plant, rear silkworms and manufacture silk goods. Across millennia, silk has remained China's premier export, surpassing all other commodities in global reach and influence. The term "Silk Road," coined in 1877 by German geographer F. VonRichtofen, links the historic trade route connecting China to South Western and Central Asia, as well as India. Dating back to the Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD), this ancient path facilitated the exchange of various goods, with silk emerging as its principal commodity. Originating from the heart of China, the Silk Road traversed North Western China before stretching westward across Asia. It served as a link for extensive interactions, fostering political, economic, and cultural exchanges among diverse regions and ethnic groups.

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Vertical Farming Revolutionizes Agriculture in India: An Overview

Sonakshi Samal et al.

India has become the world's most populous country, with nearly 1.4 billion people. While this presents opportunities for higher demographic dividends beneficial to the economy, it also exacerbates issues like resource scarcity, particularly in food security. Addressing this challenge is daunting, given the lack of scope for expanding cultivable land. Therefore, the imperative is to maximize productivity within the available land area. Vertical farming offers an innovative solution to food security concerns by maximizing production in limited spaces. It presents a lucrative opportunity for vertical farming in India. Many nations globally, including India, have witnessed significant expansion in vertical farming owing to its potential in addressing a critical issue: food security. These vertical farms can be established in densely populated regions to provide fresh, nutritious food to millions year-round, irrespective of weather conditions. In India, agricultural production faces constant challenges from soil degradation, desertification, and extreme weather events such as floods and droughts. Consequently, alternative farming methods like vertical farming are gaining popularity. Numerous startups and vertical farming enterprises are already operational in India, striving to supply major urban centers with locally sourced produce. This article aims to explore some of these vertical farms, the scope of the Indian vertical farming market, and the ongoing research in this area.

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Nurturing Animal Health with Probiotics in Feed

Gourav Biswas et al.

Probiotics play a crucial role in animal nutrition, offering a spectrum of benefits that contribute to overall health and well-being. These beneficial microorganisms, primarily bacteria and yeast, exert positive effects on digestive health by maintaining gut microbiome in balanced condition. They enhance nutrient absorption, promoting optimal growth and development in animals. Additionally, probiotics support immune modulation, improve the defence mechanisms of body against infections and diseases. In both agricultural and companion animal settings, the incorporation of probiotics has been linked to improved feed efficiency and enhanced resistance to stressors. Overall, the judicious use of probiotics in animal nutrition not only optimizes digestive processes but also contributes to robust immune function, culminating in healthier and more resilient animals.

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Diversification of Establishment Techniques in Direct Seeded Rice

Hridesh Harsha Sarma and Akash Paul

Direct seeded rice involves sowing rice seeds straight into the main field rather than transplanting seedlings from a nursery. This cultivation method reduces labor needs by skipping nursery raising and transplanting steps. It allows faster crop establishment and uses less water compared to flooded transplanting. Seeds are evenly distributed through various techniques like broadcasting, drum seeding, seed drilling and line sowing. Though suitable for areas with labor or water scarcity, weed control is challenging initially without standing water. Ongoing research aims to develop improved seed varieties, herbicides, and agronomic practices to enhance weed management in direct seeded rice systems. With refinements, this technique has the potential to boost the sustainability and productivity of rice farming operations.

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Biological Properties and Clinical Applications of Aloe Vera: Prospective and Challenges

Jayshree Padhi et al.

Aloe vera has long been utilized for its healing properties, primarily in treating skin injuries like burns, cuts, insect bites, and eczema, as well as aiding digestive problems due to its antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound-healing capabilities. Extensive research has been conducted to validate these traditional uses and uncover the underlying mechanisms, spotlighting bioactive compounds such as aloe-emodin, aloin, aloesin, emodin, and acemannan as responsible for its therapeutic effects. Recent studies have broadened the horizons of Aloe vera, exploring new therapeutic potentials. Notably, current pharmacological investigations have emphasized its anti-cancer effects, skin and digestive protection, and antimicrobial properties. Promising results from basic research highlight the need for intensified clinical trials, especially in areas like bone health, cancer treatment, and diabetes management, to fully realize the practical applications of Aloe vera and its key constituents.

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Role of Cover Crops in Soil Health Improvement

Dr. Swapana Sepehya et al.

Cover crops are increasingly recognized as integral components of sustainable agricultural systems, offering multifaceted benefits for soil health enhancement. This article discusses ideal cover crops, categorizing them into grasses, legumes, and non-legumes. It highlights their crucial role in soil quality improvement, focusing on mitigating soil erosion, regulating microbial populations, managing soil water and temperature, suppressing weeds, and promoting biodiversity. Despite facing constraints such as limited farmer awareness and competition with cash crops, cover crops remain indispensable for sustainable agriculture, serving as catalysts for soil health enhancement and agricultural resilience. This comprehensive analysis underscores the imperative of integrating cover crops into agricultural practices to ensure long-term sustainability and resilience in the face of environmental challenges.

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Hydroponics: A New Way of Farming

Pallabi Das et al.

Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent. benefits of hydroponics are that this growing methods like DWC, NFT, Aeroponics etc. needs no soil, conserves water, crops grow faster, maximizes space utilization along with few disadvantages like high installation cost and the systems are also very vulnerable to equipment failure or power outage, which can kill the plants within a few hours.

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Biodiversity's Profound Impact on Human Well-being: A Comprehensive Exploration

Bipin Kumar Sati and Durgesh Pant

Biodiversity, the intricate web of life on Earth, plays a critical role in shaping human wellbeing across various dimensions. This comprehensive exploration delves into the multifaceted ways in which biodiversity influences human health, economic prosperity, cultural heritage, and overall quality of life. Drawing upon interdisciplinary research from ecology, economics, sociology, and other fields, this study examines the intricate relationships between biodiversity and human well-being. Firstly, it elucidates the direct contributions of biodiversity to human health, such as the provision of medicinal resources, clean air and water, and natural defenses against diseases. Additionally, it analyzes the indirect benefits, including ecosystem services such as pollination, soil fertility, and climate regulation, which are essential for sustaining human livelihoods and resilience. Moreover, the study examines the cultural and spiritual significance of biodiversity, recognizing its importance in indigenous knowledge systems, traditional practices, and cultural identities. It emphasizes the intrinsic value of biodiversity and the need to preserve diverse ecosystems for future generations. In conclusion, this comprehensive exploration underscores the indispensable role of biodiversity in shaping human well-being and advocates for concerted efforts to conserve and sustainably manage Earth's rich biological heritage. By recognizing and preserving biodiversity, we can secure a healthier, more prosperous, and culturally vibrant future for generations to come.

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