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4/12/2024 12:00:00 AM Special Issue 4

Special Issue on the occasion of National Conference of "Nurturing Agricultural Advancement And Sustainability 2024" (NAAAS 2024); Zoom Mode (Online) (10-11 Feb 2024) organized by the Society of Agriculture Research and Social Development (New Delhi) & Sampoorna International Institute of Agri. Science & Horticultural Technology, Maddur in association with the University of Mysore, Mysuru.


Special Issue 4 View More
4/8/2024 12:00:00 AM Exploring Bioprospecting for Sustainable Aquaculture in Fisheries

Bioprospecting, which is derived from biodiversity prospecting, is the search for micro and macromolecules in natural resources. In several industries, including aquaculture, agriculture, biological remediation, cosmetics, and nanotechnology, this technique has produced commercially viable products. Bioprospecting refers to techniques for resource extraction from biodiversity hotspots, like seas, deserts, and rainforests, employing both contemporary biotechnological techniques and traditional knowledge systems. While overharvesting resources can have serious negative consequences on the ecosystem, it also offers benefits like gene discovery and the usage of biological material. For aquaculture to uncover novel marine organisms with commercial potential for food, medicine, or other products, bioprospecting is essential. In addition to improving fish health and nutrition, this procedure is essential for creating sustainable aquaculture methods. To ensure a more sustainable future, greater bioprospecting research and exploration have the potential to completely transform the worldwide fishing and aquaculture industries.

Prathamesh Jagdeo Ade and Pratiksha Venudasji Nimbarte View More
4/8/2024 12:00:00 AM Potatoes: An Insight to Nutrition and Health Gain

Potatoes, one of the major food crops, holds prior place in context of human consumption. Majority of food are now available in the processed form with potatoes constituting the most. Potatoes are a wholesome food due to its high edible energy and nutritive value. It is a major source of carbohydrates and essential nutrients and minerals, vitamins, antioxidants which is necessary part of diet and plays a functional role in maintaining the human body. The article provides a brief insight to the nutritional composition of potatoes along with its health benefits.

Sakshi Singh et al. View More
4/8/2024 12:00:00 AM Exploring the Role of Plants in Bioremediation: Harnessing Nature's Clean-up Agents

The study investigates the vital role of plants in bio-remediation processes, capitalizing on their inherent ability to act as nature's clean-up agents. As industries continue to generate pollutants, there is a growing need for sustainable and eco-friendly approaches to mitigate environmental damage. This research delves into the diverse mechanisms by which plants contribute to bioremediation, including phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, and phytoextraction. The exploration encompasses the interactions between plant roots and soil microorganisms, as well as the potential for genetic modifications to enhance bioremediation efficiency. By comprehensively analysing the scientific literature, this study aims to provide insights into harnessing the natural capabilities of plants for effective and environmentally friendly remediation strategies. The findings contribute to the on-going discourse on sustainable environmental management, offering promising avenues for the integration of plant-based solutions into mainstream bio-remediation practices.

Monalisha Sahoo View More
4/7/2024 12:00:00 AM Digital Farming Revolution: Transforming Agriculture for Resilience

This article delves into the transformative impact of the digital farming revolution, exploring its profound influence on agricultural engineering, the role of policymakers, challenges faced by the agricultural sector, and the remarkable changes it brings to conventional farming practices. The abstract provides a snapshot of the comprehensive examination, highlighting key themes such as resource optimization, enhanced productivity, and environmental sustainability.

Karmnath Kumar and Sucheta Dahiya View More
4/7/2024 12:00:00 AM Adapting Agriculture: Cultivating Resilience in the Era of Climate Change

In the face of escalating climate change threats, Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) is imperative, addressing agricultural output, climate resilience, and emissions mitigation. Implementation requires financial incentives, policy support, and technical expertise for farmers. Collaboration among stakeholders, supported by research and innovation, is crucial. Financial mechanisms help overcome adoption barriers. CSA offers manifold benefits, but challenges like knowledge gaps and limited resources persist. United efforts and international cooperation are essential to unlock CSA's transformative potential, ensuring a sustainable and resilient future for global agriculture.

Akanksha and Sucheta Dahiya View More
4/7/2024 12:00:00 AM Unveiling the Hazards: The Impact of Herbicides on Human Health

This article investigates into the multifaceted impact of herbicides on human health, exploring their historical evolution and contemporary risks. The use of herbicides, pivotal in modern agriculture since World War II, has raised concerns about potential health hazards. Inspired by Rachel Carson's seminal work, "Silent Spring," this analysis investigates the health risks associated with herbicides, emphasizing neurological effects, reproductive and endocrine disruptions, carcinogenic potential, and environmental persistence. The discussion highlights the impact of organophosphates and carbamates on the nervous system, manifesting symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and dizziness. Additionally, the environmental persistence of herbicides is addressed, emphasizing soil and water contamination, with potential consequences for aquatic ecosystems and human populations. The abstract emphasizes the critical need for awareness, responsible practices, and sustainable approaches to balance weed control and preserve human well-being.

Ashish Yadav and Sucheta Dahiya View More
4/6/2024 12:00:00 AM Vector Vortex: Exposing the Peril of Mosquito-Borne Threats

This article delves into the intricate web of mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs), encompassing prevalent threats such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, and Zika. With nearly 500 million individuals affected by malaria and 100 million by lymphatic filariasis annually, and approximately 25,000 deaths attributed to dengue each year, understanding the global incidence of these diseases is paramount. The control of diseasetransmitting vectors poses a significant challenge worldwide, with synthetic pesticides serving as primary tools for larval and adult mosquito control. However, the emergence of resistance impedes their efficacy. This comprehensive analysis sheds light on the current global landscape of MBDs and underscores the need for sustainable solutions in combatting these pervasive threats.

Kalavathi K. Kambali et al. View More
4/6/2024 12:00:00 AM Harnessing Microorganisms: The Role of Microorganisms in Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

Aquaculture effluent treatment is a critical aspect of sustainable aquaculture practices, ensuring environmental responsibility and resource conservation. Microorganisms play a pivotal role in this process by facilitating the breakdown of organic matter and the removal of harmful compounds from effluent water. This article explores the diverse roles of microorganisms in aquaculture effluent treatment, including their involvement in nitrogen and phosphorus removal, organic matter decomposition, and pathogen control. Various microbial-based treatment methods, such as biofiltration, microbial mats, and constructed wetlands, are discussed, highlighting their efficiency in reducing pollutants and improving water quality. Furthermore, the potential challenges and prospects of utilizing microorganisms for aquaculture effluent treatment are addressed, emphasizing the importance of research and innovation in developing sustainable solutions.

A. Jackqulinwino et al. View More
4/6/2024 12:00:00 AM Rumen Metagenome and Metabolome for Optimized Production

Rumen converts lignocellulosic biomass to high-quality food by virtue of the diverse microbiota. The composition of rumen ecosystem is influenced by various factors including diet, individuality, age, geographical location, post-feeding time etc. Earlier culture-based techniques could study rumen microbes partially for the cultivable microbes. But now it is known that about 90% of rumen microbes are unculturable and the knowledge that we have till now seems to be limited. With the advent of new technologies such as next-generation sequencing which studied the whole ruminal ecosystem at one time contributed tremendously to our existing knowledge. Approaches like metagenomics, metabolomics etc. have made it possible to study the structure and function of rumen microbes in their natural environment. Understanding the composition and activity of the microbial community in the rumen is crucial for the improvement of productivity and lessening of environmental pollution in the ruminant livestock industry. Analysis of metabolome and microbiome revealed direct or indirect association for a better understanding of the biochemical and microbial functions of the rumen.

Neelam Kumari View More
4/5/2024 12:00:00 AM Khadi Industry in India

Khadi is one of the icons of India's freedom movement, which derived from the word Khaddar. It is considered as the threads of swaraj. Khadi served as more than simply a fabric?it was a way to reunite Indians with their heritage, their rural villages, and the dignity of hard work. The All-India Spinner Association (AISA) was formed by Mahatma Gandhi. All India Khadi & Village Industries Board (AIKVIB) in January 1953. It was replaced by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) in 1955. By providing decent work and job creation, the Khadi sector's workforce comprising women, a fair wage ensures economic empowerment; it fulfils various sustainable development goals. Government is taking initiatives like Gramodyog Vikas Yojana and Village Industries, Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI), The Khadi Production Programme, The Khadi Gramodyog, Vikas Yojana, etc to strengthen khadi industry in India.

Ms Lopamudra Mohanty et al. View More
4/5/2024 12:00:00 AM Role of Growth Regulators in Plant Disease Development

Plant growth is regulated by a small number of groups of naturally occurring compounds that act as hormones are called as growth regulators. The most important growth regulators are auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins, but other compounds such as ethylene and other growth inhibitors, play important regulatory roles in the life of the plant (Sequeira, 1963).

J. Vamshi View More
4/5/2024 12:00:00 AM The Revolutionary Impact of Nano Urea and Nano DAP in Agriculture

In the ever-evolving landscape of agriculture, nano urea and nano DAP have emerged as revolutionary fertilizers, promising unparalleled advancements in nutrient management and sustainable farming practices. This article explores the transformative potential of these nano-technological innovations, shedding light on their unique properties and the profound impact they bring to the realm of crop cultivation. The compatibility of nano urea and nano DAP opens doors to simultaneous usage, offering farmers a comprehensive approach to nutrient management. However, cautious consideration of recommended dosages, guidelines, and monitoring crop responses is paramount.

Ashish Yadav and Sucheta Dahiya View More
4/4/2024 12:00:00 AM eSoil: A Game Changer in the Landscape of Sustainable Agriculture

Agriculture has a significant role in the economy of the whole world since it provides billions of people with food, feed, fibre, and fuel materials. Agriculture has a number of challenges, including the deterioration of land, the scarcity of water, the effects of climate change, and the growth of the population. What are some ways that we may improve the well-being of people while simultaneously preserving the environment and increasing the efficiency of food production? The cutting-edge technology known as eSoil combines hydroponics with bioelectronics in order to better facilitate the growth of plants and to boost agricultural output. According to Mamatha and Kavitha (2023) Hydroponics is a method of cultivating plants that does not need the use of soil and instead depends on water and nutrients as the plant's growth medium. The scientific field of bioelectronics is concerned with the utilisation of electrical impulses for the purpose of communicating with biological processes. eSoil is a conductive substrate that is appropriate for hydroponic cultivation and has the ability to provide electrical stimulation to the roots of plants.

Deepak Sharma et al. View More
4/4/2024 12:00:00 AM Artificial Intelligence in Indian Agriculture: Current Status and Challenges

Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing Indian agriculture, offering solutions from precision farming to market forecasting. Through AI-powered drones, sensors, and predictive analytics, farmers can optimize crop management, mitigate risks, and improve productivity. Collaborations like Microsoft and ICRISAT's sowing app empower farmers with vital insights. Challenges such as data scarcity and rural infrastructure gaps persist, yet AI holds promise for sustainable farming. Despite climate uncertainties, AI offers resilience through early disease detection and smart irrigation. By embracing AI and fostering collaboration, India can ensure food security and economic prosperity in agriculture.

Vikas Chandra Gautam et al. View More
4/4/2024 12:00:00 AM Greening the Golden Sands: Serapium Forest-The Atlas for Future

Desert forestry is a proactive approach to reclaiming arid and semi-arid deserts for ecological, agricultural, and economic purposes. By harnessing innovative methods, such as wastewater treatment, forests like the Serapium in Egypt demonstrate the potential to combat desertification while simultaneously addressing biodiversity conservation and economic growth. This paper explores the Serapium Forest as a case study, highlighting its utilization of treated sewage water for sustainable forest growth, the biodiversity it fosters, and the economic opportunities it presents through timber production.

M. Ashwin Niranjan et al. View More
4/3/2024 12:00:00 AM Low-grade Rock Phosphate with Zeolite can be a Valuable P Fertilizer for Crops

In India, most of the indigenous deposits of rock phosphate are low grade. While high-grade quality rock phosphate is used to produce phosphatic fertilizers which are found to be costly. If the low-grade indigenous deposits of rock phosphate are utilized at full extent, in can reduce the cost of P fertilizers and also meet the crop P demand however, technologies by which P from indigenous low grade rock phosphate can be solubilized and utilized as a source of P fertilizer are required that are feasible to be adopted by farmers. They include composting with farm manure, green manuring, partial acidulation of rock phosphate, use of phosphorus solubilizing organisms, etc. Recent technology is the use of naturally occurring zeolites.

V. Girijaveni et al. View More
4/3/2024 12:00:00 AM Fish Silage: A Noble Fish Feed Ingredient

Different fishing activities generate a waste volume related to the processing species (viscera, heads and bones), the discards of the companion fauna, species of low commercial value and the losses related to handling problems. The biological silage could be the technology of choice to promote a sustainable waste management. Studies highlight the possibility of using a wide variety of carbohydrate sources, biological starters and fish waste fermentation conditions. This work could contribute to the fisheries that decide to adopt this kind technology in order to provide an innovative and viable recycling bioeconomy.

Puneet Kumar Patel et al. View More
4/2/2024 12:00:00 AM Seagrass: The Lungs of Ocean

Seagrass ecosystems, often overshadowed by more conspicuous marine habitats, play a vital role in marine ecology and coastal resilience. Seagrasses, the sole marine representatives of Angiospermae, are widely distributed across shallow coastal areas, salt marshes, and estuaries globally. They serve as essential habitats and nursery grounds for diverse marine species, supporting intricate food webs and providing refuge from predators. Seagrass meadows act as filters, stabilizing sediments, improving water quality, and mitigating the impacts of waves and storms on coastlines. Economically, seagrasses contribute significantly to commercial fisheries and nature-based tourism industries. Despite their importance, seagrass habitats face threats from human activities such as trawling, dredging, and pollution. Restoration efforts, including replanting and reseeding techniques, are underway to conserve and restore seagrass ecosystems. Overall, seagrasses emerge as critical "ecosystem engineers" essential for maintaining coastal biodiversity and resilience in the face of climate change and anthropogenic pressures.

Paplin Prince B and Vignesh P View More
4/2/2024 12:00:00 AM Nutritional Approaches to Combat Lameness in Ruminants

Lameness remains a significant challenge in the livestock industry worldwide, affecting both animal welfare and farm productivity. It not only affects animal welfare but also correlates with reduced milk yield, feed intake, and reproductive performance. Proper nutrition and management practices are vital for promoting healthy hooves in livestock. This paper reviews the nutritional requirements and management strategies essential for preventing lameness, particularly focusing on dairy cattle. It discusses the importance of amino acids, minerals (such as calcium, copper, zinc, cobalt, and manganese) and vitamins (A, D, E, and biotin) in maintaining hoof health. Additionally, it emphasizes the significance of proper feeding management practices, including offering forage before grain, monitoring dry matter intake, analyzing total mixed ration particle size, and incorporating dietary buffers. By implementing tailored feeding and management strategies, it is possible to mitigate lameness issues and ensure sustainable productivity and fertility in dairy cattle herds.

Tripti Bhatia and Ankita Pal View More
4/2/2024 12:00:00 AM Fall Armyworm (FAW) Management: A Notorious Devil in Maize (Zea mays L.)

The Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a voracious feeder in the maize crop having a typical feeding habit of hiding inside the inner whorl of the maize plant. The final instar larvae are responsible for huge crop loss and yield reduction. That is why, the control of the menace of FAW is now the need of the hour. Although the use of synthetic insecticides gives instant control to the FAW armyworm, the implementation of integrated practices is always advisable because of the insect's hiding behavior. The IPM practices have only the demerit of slow-acting but that is completely eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable.

Satyabrata Sarangi View More
4/1/2024 12:00:00 AM Diversified Farming Systems in Indian Agriculture: A Sustainable Approach to Enhance Productivity and Resilience

Indian agriculture faces formidable challenges, including climate change, resource depletion, and diminishing productivity, jeopardizing the livelihoods of small and marginal farmers who constitute over 86% of the farming community. This paper advocates for a paradigm shift towards diversified farming systems to address these multifaceted issues. The study emphasizes the integration of crops with complementary enterprises such as dairy, sheep, poultry, horticulture, and fisheries. Diversification offers numerous advantages, including risk reduction, resilience to climate change, soil health improvement, biodiversity conservation, and cultural value preservation. The research analyzes various farming systems in different regions of India, demonstrating that integration leads to higher net income and employment generation. Despite potential challenges like limited market demand and infrastructure issues, the benefits of diversified farming outweigh the drawbacks. This paper underscores the importance of tailoring diversified farming systems to be socially acceptable, environmentally friendly, and economically viable, promoting sustainability and contributing to the well-being of farmers and the broader community.

Seemakowsar, N. et al. View More
4/1/2024 12:00:00 AM Fusarium Wilt in Chili

Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is the most widely grown solanaceous crop in the world. However, their production has reduced over several years due to the attack of various fungal and bacterial pathogens and various abiotic factors. Still, the major constraints in their production are pathogens with fungal etiology, especially the fungal wilt of solanaceous crops. One among the fungal diseases is Fusarium wilt, caused by the Fusarium oxysporum has emerged as a serious problem in past decade (Anonymous, 2005). (Singh, 1998) first time reported the wilt disease of chili caused by Fusarium spp. Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. moniliforme and F. pallidoroseum have been reported as the wilt causing agents from chili growing areas but in India F. oxysporum and F. solani are the most prevalent species of Fusarium found associated with wilt disease of chili (Madhukar, 2004). Fusarium oxysporum have been previously identified as the pathogens causing wilt disease in chili. Recently, a new fungal pathogen F. equiseti has been reported as the causal agent of wilt disease infecting chili. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing were performed on the various diseased plants to isolate the fungus. DNA barcoding using the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was used to identify the pathogen followed by the pathogenicity test. Further confirmation of the pathogen was done by sequencing of transcription elongation factor (TEF) and Calmodulin (CAL2).

J. Vamshi View More
4/1/2024 12:00:00 AM The Importance of Plant Virus Transmission by Insect Vectors

Most plant viruses depend on insect vectors for their survival, transmission and spread. They transmit plant viruses by two principal modes, circulative (circulating through the insect?s haemocoel, CV) and non-circulative (carried on the cuticle lining of mouthparts or foregut, NC). Transmissibility and specificity between NC viruses and their vectors depend on the coat protein (CP) of the virus in addition to virus-encoded helper proteins. Circulative viruses cross the gut, circulate in the haemocoel and cross the salivary glands to render the insect infective. Circulative luteoviruses depend on small CP and the read-through protein (RTD) for transmission. Electrical penetration graphs have provided evidence on insect feeding behaviour and virus transmission. Recently, studies have shown that viruses can modify vector behaviour in a way that transmission is enhanced. Cultural, physical and novel biotechnological tools can provide virus control by interfering with vector landing and the retention of viruses in their vectors.

J. Vamshi View More