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Human-Wildlife Conflict: Cause and Strategies to Prevent It

The term "human-wildlife conflict" (HWC) refers to interactions between people and animals in which there are unfavorable outcomes-whether genuine or perceived-for either one or both parties when one or both take actions that negatively affect the other. The majority of the population in developing nations like India, on which natural resources are strongly reliant, has long coexisted with forest inhabitants. However, the increasing human reliance on natural resources and the destruction of wildlife habitats have led to a scenario where humans and wildlife are at odds. Different aspects of human-wildlife conflict include crop destruction, cattle theft, human fatalities, and property damage caused by wild animals. A major cause of conflict is the increasing population of the human, urbanization, deforestation etc., and people surrounding the protected followed various strategies like fencing around the agriculture field, guarding, and translocation etc., it is imperative that action plans, that target offsetting the economic loss of local and enhance public participation, are put in place to meet the integrated conservation and development goal in a landscape where human and wildlife can coexist.