The Indian agriculture is characterized by millions of marginal and small farmers, who are facing difficulties to operate the high risk of farming. The risk is related to weather uncertainties, uneven access to technologies and natural resources, unreliable input supplies, stressed infrastructure in power and irrigation and uncertain marketing arrangements which responsible for less bargaining power in input and output marketing of Indian farmers in present economic scenario. The increase in population, subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings due to breakdown of joint family system encouraging conversion of semi-medium and medium group of farmers into group of small and marginal farmers, which results in un-economic land holdings. In future, Indian agriculture will be dominated by marginal and small holdings, on which application of new agricultural technologies would become more difficult. It is suggested that for ensuring sustainable viability of marginal and small farmers, the creation of job opportunities in rural areas along with suitable policy support for development of livestock sector and other allied activities would be panacea for resource-poor farming community in the future.