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Long Non-Coding RNA (LncRNA): An Emerging Regulatory Component in Plants

The Central Dogma of molecular biology primarily describes the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. Despite the fact that a small fraction of transcribed RNA results in proteins, the majority constitutes noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) previously considered as "transcriptional noise." Among these, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) plays a pivotal role in plant biology. LncRNAs, longer than 200 nucleotides, are categorized into various types based on their relationships with protein-coding genes, showing potential in stress response modulation, immune system regulation, symbiotic interactions, and control of developmental processes like flowering. Notably, specific lncRNAs have been linked to fruit ripening regulation, salt tolerance enhancement, and disease resistance in plants, emphasizing their functional significance in these processes.