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Ecology of Virus in Soil

The study of viral ecology within soil environments is a topic of scientific interest. Soil microbiologists have constantly engaged in the investigation of viruses, focusing on agronomic and epidemiological considerations. The diversity of viruses in the soil environment surpasses that found in aquatic environments. Hence, it is evident that viruses present in soil possess significant potential to contribute to various ecological processes. Specifically, they exhibit comparable quantitative impacts, while also offering distinct qualitative contributions.In this article, past findings on viruses in soils is summarized after the introduction of the ecological traits of viruses, which are the effects of viruses on beneficial bacteria and soil-borne plant pathogens, adsorption of viruses to soils, and soil factors affecting viral inactivation and survival in soils. In aquatic ecosystems, it has been estimated that a considerable portion, ranging from five to 25%, of the carbon fixed by primary producers enters the microbial loop through virus-induced lysis occurring at different trophic levels.The potentiality and characteristics of viruses in soils are discussed in the final section for future work on virus ecology in soils from the viewpoints of biogeochemistry and genomic diversity. Synecological approaches to viruses in soils may open up a new era in the study of soil virus ecology.