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Rice Mechanisms in Response to Submergence and Waterlogging Stress

Rice unlike other cereals can survive well in anaerobic condition as it is highly tolerant to excess water stress either due to submergence (where a part or the whole plant is under water) or waterlogging (soil condition in which excess water limits diffusion of gas) which leads to reduction of aerobic respiration. Rice tolerates submergence by internal aeration and growth controls. A quiescence strategy based on Submergence-1A (SUB1A) or escape strategy based on SNORKEL1 (SK1) and SNORKEL2 (SK2) are used for the growth controls. On the other hand, rice handles waterlogging stress by forming lysigenous aerenchyma and a barrier to radial oxygen (O2) loss (ROL) in roots in order to supply O2 to root tips.