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Nano Fertilizers: Applications and Future Prospects

The global population is growing at an alarming rate, which has increased the demand for food continuously. The widespread use of fertilizers is a result of the increased global demand for food. The commonly used chemical fertilizers may increase plant growth and output, but they have deleterious effects on the soil, the environment, and even human health. Therefore, there is a need for adopting environment friendly fertilizers having high nutrient value. Nanotechnology is rising as a promising alternative in the form of nano fertilizers. Nanofertilizers (NFs) are materials in the size range of 1?100 nm that support the nutrition of the plants. Nano fertilizer comprises nanoformulations of nutrients deliverable to plants, enabling sustained and homogeneous absorption. It is a novel way to optimize the nutrient supply, either alone or in combination. Researches have shown that nano fertilizers increase nutrient usage, reduce soil toxicity, mitigate possible adverse effects of excessive use of chemical fertilizers. Moreover, the use of nano fertilizers drastically reduces waste, thereby saving money and protecting the environment. Furthermore, nano fertilizers, along with beneficial microbes, i.e., nano-biofertilizers, have set a paramount application toward sustainable agriculture. Nano fertilizers are the product of promising new technology that can help to meet the increasing demand for food and improve agricultural sustainability.